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USCB Research and Scholarship Day

List of Abstracts in the Category of Descriptive (Total 14)

Abstract ID: 40
Abstract Title: Cell Morphology of Mouse Embryo
Student: Christina Adams (cea7@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Jena Chojnowksi (jchojnow@uscb.edu)
Author List: Christina E. Adams and J.L. Chojnowski
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
Mice are used in a lot of research because they closely resemble humans in their genetic, biological, and behavioral aspects. They can be used to replicate human conditions within them in order to find treatments or cures to illnesses. By observing and learning about the cell morphology of a mouse, this can help an individual gain knowledge about what cells look like within our bodies and how future development with mice can lead to groundbreaking discoveries, but one must first be able to look within a sample and be able to find similarities and differences between the organism and human beings. The focus of this work is to get a generalized understanding of cells and be able to apply the knowledge of differentiating cells in order to locate and learn where these processes can take place. The samples used were mouse embryo samples at 10.5 days old that had been embedded in wax. In order to investigate the cell types, a microtome had to be used to give thin enough sections to place onto slides and were then stained using a hematoxylin and eosin stain so that the nucleus and cytoplasm could be differentiated from one another. In conclusion, mitosis of a cell was observed at different stages throughout developing embryos and also different cell types within the brain and eye regions. This has resulted in a better understanding of cells and the different types of cells, which can now be applied to future research stemming from this opportunity.

Abstract ID: 11
Abstract Title: Environmental Injustices: Health Contaminants Soiling the African American Community
Student: Rachel Campbell (RIC@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Erin McCoy (emccoy@uscb.edu)
Author List: Rachel Campbell
Program: English Theater and Liberal Studies
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
The United States engages in a pattern of contaminating lower social class and minority communities with hazardous waste material. In recent years, studies have shown there is a higher risk for poor health among people of color living within impoverished communities as opposed to their wealthier counterparts. As a result of environmental contamination, many minority groups (this poster focuses specifically on African Americans) are more likely to be afflicted with respiratory, circulatory, and various other health complications from prolonged exposure to toxic waste. In this descriptive study, areas of hazardous waste-dumping sites in conjunction with the race and class status of nearby inhabitants and relevant legislative acts are reviewed in order to assess whether these phenomena compromise Environmental Justice and personal health. The objective of this study is to represent inequity in waste management for being potentially at fault for the emergence of illnesses in African American communities.

Abstract ID: 49
Abstract Title: Pawsensitive Destinations
Student: Sarah Dawkins (sld3@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Nancy Hritz (nhritz@uscb.edu)
Author List: Sarah Dawkins, Nancy Hritz
Program: Hospitality Management
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
In today’s world, families do not just consist of two-legged individuals. The pet travel industry is already booming and destinations that become more welcoming will have competitive advantage over other travel destinations. From a descriptive point of view, all age generations agreed they would travel more with their pet if destinations were more pet friendly. Two teams of research assistants from LRITI conducted surveys at two different festivals in the southeastern U.S. Survey participants were asked if they ever travel with a pet as a filter question. If the response was in the affirmative, the participants were asked a series of questions regarding what they look for in a destination when traveling with their pets, such as dog parks, accommodations and pet friendly food and beverage businesses. Additionally, survey participants were asked demographic questions such as age, level of education, income level and where they were from. A total of 239 fully completed surveys were collected from both festivals. Descriptively, the typical survey participant was female (66.7%) rather than male (22.9%). The age generations were evenly dispersed with Baby Boomers (23.6%), Generation X with 38.3% of the sample, and 37.5% were Millennials. A predominant percentage of the sample resided in either South Carolina or Georgia at 76.8%. The survey participant tended to be an educated group with 54.4% having an earned Bachelor or Graduate degree. However, income levels varied widely with 12.7% earning less than $24,999 annually, 14.8% earning $50,000 to $74,999, and 14.3% reported earnings in the $75,000 to $99,999 and $100,000 to $149,999 income categories. The most common number of trips taken with a pet was 1-2 trips at 42.5% followed by 3-4 (28.8%).

Abstract ID: 23
Abstract Title: Arrhythmia Alliance and USCB’s Health and Wellness Fair: Benefits of Building Community
Student: Sharonica Gavin (gavins@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Diana Reindl (dreindl@uscb.edu)
Author List: Sharonica Gavin, Diana Reindl
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
Background:rnResearch shows communities grow when there is collaboration with and commitment to that community (Rowitz, 2014). Arrhythmia Alliance and USCB each have this commitment. Moreover, health and wellness fairs have the potential to provide benefits to community members and promote community growth. The purpose of Arrhythmia Alliance partnering with USCB’s Health & Wellness Fair was to increase heart arrhythmia awareness through prevention, education, demonstration, and resources. rnMethods:rnTo increase heart arrhythmia awareness pulse checks were completed. Pulse checks were conducted using an AliveCor Kardia device (FDA approved), which collected a one lead EKG and heart rate in 30 seconds. Furthermore, Arrhythmia Alliance partnered with USCB to add an additional three vendors and support to the 6th Annual Health and Wellness Fair.rnResults:rnIn total, 92 pulse checks were conducted. A total of 65 were classified as normal, 25 were documented as unclassified and 2 Atrial Fibrillation detections. Arrhythmia Alliance assisted with strengthening relationships with the Bluffton Township Fire District. Two Sudden Cardiac Arrest presentations were conducted. Moreover, an Atrial Fibrillation seminar was presented by a local cardiologist with attendance including both USCB students and the public. rnConclusions:rnThe collaboration between Arrhythmia Alliance and USCB was beneficial. Arrhythmia Alliance was able to increase awareness of heart arrhythmias as well as build strong community relations. Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia; however, many are unaware of the condition and are currently undiagnosed. A successful community building relationship took place at the Health and Wellness Fair, with both organizations coming together with the common interest of increasing health awareness.

Abstract ID: 72
Abstract Title: The Pen
Student: Amanda Mazeika (amazeika@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Ellen Malphrus (pemalphr@uscb.edu)
Author List: Amanda Mazeika
Program: English Theater and Liberal Studies
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
The Pen is USCB’s Journal of Creative Writing and Art that publishes biannually. It features the original work of students that includes primarily fiction, poetry, and playwriting, as well as other creative arts, such as photography, painting, music, comicstrips, and non-fiction. You don’t have to be an English major, nor do you have to be enrolled in an English or art course to submit work! Email thepenuscb@gmail.com to submit or for more information!

Abstract ID: 25
Abstract Title: Evolution of the English Language Bible
Student: Logan McFee (lmcfee@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Robert Landrum (rlandrum@uscb.edu)
Author List: Logan McFee
Program: Humanities
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
Throughout history, there have been countless versions of the Bible written in the English language. When Luther proposed his idea of Bibles in hands, he was opening the door for different interpretations and opinions of the Bible to be made. It was not long before the idea found its way to England, and by the mid-1500s, there were numerous English language Bibles. There have been English language Bibles written for all imaginable purposes: the lay population, official use, and even versions that were meant to be heard, not read. As the number of Bibles translated into the English language began to grow exponentially, it became clear that authors’ individual views heavily influenced the ways in which Scripture was presented. For example: the Bishop’s Bible, first printed in 1568, was a Bible directly authorized by the Church of England. As a result, the language used in the Bishop’s Bible is pompous and was meant to be read to a congregation during a church service. The haughty language would not have been a problem for the clergymen giving the sermon to read, but it would have been very laborious for the layman to comprehend. Therefore, Bibles like the Geneva Bible became important. The Geneva Bible was printed by Englishmen in exile in Calvin’s Geneva in 1560 and contained guides and aids to assist the layman reader in understanding Scripture. The Geneva Bible would later inspire some of the language of the King James Bible. This presentation will focus on some of the landmarks in the evolution within the sixteenth century English Bible and provide a short description of each one identified, such as the Geneva Bible and the Bishop’s Bible, Tyndale’s New Testament, The Matthew Bible, the Great Bible, the Lollard Bible, and the Wycliffe Bible.

Abstract ID: 16
Abstract Title: Beaufort County’s Proclivity for Cultural/Heritage Tourism: An Analysis at the Heart of Hospitality
Student: Samantha Moore (sam19@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Nancy Hritz (nhritz@uscb.edu)
Author List: Moore, Samantha
Program: Hospitality Management
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
Cultural/heritage tourism continues to grow alongside unprecedented expansion in the hospitality industry. Culture and heritage tourism may be considered one of the most significant and fastest growing phenomena in the world (Herbert, 1995). Cultural/heritage sites are important for destinations as they draw repeat travelers (Azula, O’Leary, & Morrison, 1998). Beaufort County, SC is seeking to establish itself as a cultural/heritage destination. The area is ripe with historical attractions, and a dedicated cultural district. This study sought to describe both the current and potential cultural and heritage traveler to Beaufort County. Partnering with the Lowcountry and Resort Islands Tourism Research Institute (LRITI), 10,000 individuals were invited to participate in an email survey. A total of 804 fully completed surveys were collected, an 8% response rate. The results show 58.21% participants have visited the in the last 18 months, with only 14.65% first time visitors. Interestingly, 39.96% occurred in the first quarter: January (9.29%), February (16.63%), and March (14.04%). This may indicate despite the slow season, the Lowcountry’s culture and heritage is an understated commodity. A majority of the participants were aged 65-74, with an emerging age range of 45-54. Those visiting heritage and cultural attractions were 63.36%. The top locations were: Hunting Island, Edisto Beach, Parris Island and Gullah Museums. Only 33.33% of travelers agreed/strongly agreed they were not aware of the cultural/heritage attractions in the area, and 28.31% strongly disagreed/disagreed they were uninterested in visiting cultural/heritage facilities. Additionally, a majority of the participants (64.84%) neither agreed/disagreed there were better cultural/heritage attraction and/or facilities in surrounding destinations. This indicates a large market may be unreached and with strategic and proactive marketing, the Lowcountry can be branded as the premier cultural/heritage hub of the South.

Abstract ID: 48
Abstract Title: Fish Diversity, Abundance, and Growth Patterns in Tidal Pools and Creeks of the May River Estuary, SC
Student: Thomas Morgenstern (morgent@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Eric Montie (emontie@uscb.edu)
Author List: Thomas Morgenstern, Bradshaw McKinney, Shaneel Bivek, Austin Roller, Jamileh Soueidan, Eva May, Ashlee Seder, Caleb Shedd, Claire Mueller, Alyssa Marian, Agnieszka Monczak, Bill Roumillat, Erin Levesque, Steve Borgianini, Eric W. Montie
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
Estuaries serve as nursery habitat for many species of fish. Estuaries are composed of microhabitats including oyster reefs, salt marsh grass, soft bottom habitats, and sand flats. In estuaries of the Southeast, the tidal range is intense and as the tide goes out, this creates intertidal pools and creeks. These microhabitats serve as a refuge for many invertebrate and fish species. The goal of this study was to investigate the diversity, abundance, and growth patterns of fish that inhabit intertidal pools, creeks, and shorelines in the May River Estuary, South Carolina. A total of 44 sites were randomly selected and sampled bi-monthly using a haul seine around the low tide. A total number of 6 invertebrate species were collected that spanned 6 families. A total number of 52 fish species were collected that spanned 30 families. The most abundant species were spot (Leiostomus xanthurus), bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli), mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) silver perch (Bairdiella chrysoura), Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia), and tidewater mojarra (Eucinostimus harengulus). Many of the observed species in the haul seines were young-of-the-year (YOY) fish, indicating that the May River estuary serves as nursery habitat for many important fish species. Different YOY were more abundant at specific times of the year following the spawning timelines for that species.

Abstract ID: 35
Abstract Title: The Index
Student: Destiny Rose (Destinyr@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Robert Landrum (rlandrum@uscb.edu)
Author List: Destint Rose
Program: Humanities
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
For Research and Scholarship Day I would like to discuss "The Index". With the help of my poster and research I plan on explaining what "The Index" is, how it impacted both the Renaissance and the Italian period of reformation. I will also explain how this text helped spread and promote significant historical works to the people of its time. And lastly I will explain why this text is still a vital and significant part of our history.

Abstract ID: 22
Abstract Title: Environmental Racial Disparities
Student: Alaysha Salley (aksalley@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Najmah Thomas (nthomas2@uscb.edu)
Author List: Salley, Alaysha
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
Why should minorities of color and low-income neighborhoods live within or endure environmental racial disparities? This issue of controlling environmental regulations is important because the unbalancing powers the poor communities and communities of color have caused “produces of waste to minimize unproductive expenses” (Krieg,1998,5). Potential impacts are uncontrollable dumping of waste, leading to contaminated communities, and community segregation. The affect of minorities in the low-income communities having low level of political and economic power creates the problem of commercial hazardous waste landfills and abandoned toxic waste sites located in their communities. Also, the physical environments of their communities can include of housing with lead-based paint, and dangerous pollutants. Their communities should have the power of reducing the cost of externalization. The National Environment Policy Act states in the Environmental Justice Legislation that for “All Americans safe, healthful, productive and esthetically pleasing surrounding” are provided. The main point of this issue is leading factor of exposure to chemicals and waste causing health risks. My research approach is descriptive. For this unjustified inequality in America the approach I would begin with would be figuring out since it is stated in VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Environmental Justice that there is ‘nondiscrimination’, why is illegal dumping mainly in the communities of races other than white. Continuing this discussion, I will address the uncomfortable topic of race. My research will consist of minorities including, Hispanic, Latinos, Native- Americans and African Americans. Addressing their income status leading to their living conditions, the communities, causing the type of physical surroundings, and resulting with their risk of health. Also, which of the minorities is most likely to be in this predicament, and if their community is redlined.

Abstract ID: 53
Abstract Title: Fine-scale Spatial Mapping of Biological Sounds in the May River Estuary
Student: Ashlee Seder (aseder@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Eric Montie (emontie@uscb.edu)
Author List: Ashlee Seder, Bradshaw McKinney, Agnieszka Monczak, Claire Mueller, Jamileh Soueidan, Alyssa Marian, Stephen Borgianini, Eric W. Montie
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
The study of soundscapes is a fairly new scientific field that uses sound to characterize ecosystems. This can be a helpful tool for tracking species, estimating population sizes, monitoring behavior, and studying the overall quality of habitats. In estuaries, this tool is especially helpful since the underwater environment cannot be studied easily by sight due to the lack of visibility of this highly productive ecosystem. Estuarine soundscapes are acoustically rich, and sound patterns have been an understudied element. Therefore, the goal of this project was to map the soundscape of the May River. A passive acoustic recorder (DSG-Ocean) was towed by boat and recorded sound continuously along a specific course. From the acoustic data collected, sound pressure levels (SPLs) of high frequency (7000 Hz-39000 Hz) and low frequency (50 Hz-1200 Hz) bandwidths were determined every 1 sec and mapped to a specific GPS location. The data was then used to create heat maps using ArcGIS. The acoustic data collected and the heat maps that were produced revealed that the soundscape of the May River was complex and exhibited great spatial heterogeneity. Distinct spatial hotspots of low frequency sound (i.e., indicative of spotted seatrout chorusing) and high frequency sound (i.e., indicative of snapping shrimp acoustic activity) were observed. In the future, the goal is to collaborate with SCDNR to map the shoreline habitat of the May River. The purpose of this is to determine if there is a correlation between shoreline structure (e.g., oyster reefs and soft bottom) and higher SPLs of high and low frequency. Acoustic cues may be used by marine organisms for settlement and recruitment and thus spatial heterogeneity in sound levels may indicate suitable habitat. The soundscape data collected could potentially provide new tools to help understand the health of estuaries by tracking biological sounds over time and space.

Abstract ID: 39
Abstract Title: Development of a Rapid DNA Technique to Differentiate Human and Animal Fecal Contamination
Student: Olivia Whipple (owhipple@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Kim Ritchie (kritch@uscb.edu)
Author List: Olivia Whipple, Natalie Alvarez and Kim B. Ritchie
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
Development of a Rapid DNA Technique to Differentiate Human and Animal Fecal Contamination Olivia Whipple, Natalie Alvarez and Kim B. Ritchie University of South Carolina, Beaufort Tracking the source(s) of fecal pollution in local waterways is critical for minimizing human health impacts and regulating water quality. Currently there are no real-time assays to differentiate the presence of fecal contamination in the Port Royal Sound area. We are developing a rapid hand-held DNA technique to 1) confirm the presence/absence of human fecal coliform bacteria and 2) differentiate between human and animal fecal contamination sources using animal-specific viral tracers. Unlike current methods which can take weeks to generate results, the rapid hand-held technique can generate results within an hour. Results will provide the basis for a more comprehensive study aimed at developing new tools for the management of the area. We are working with the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) and the City of Bluffton for this pilot project. Development of this technique may also be optimized for application to other systems, such as pathogen presence and persistence in local waters, pathogen presence in aquaculture and detection of human pathogens in oyster fisheries.

Abstract ID: 31
Abstract Title: Comparative Eye Morphology
Student: David White (dawhite@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Jena Chojnowksi (jchojnow@uscb.edu)
Author List: David White, Jena Chonowski PhD
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to highlight comparative eye morphologies among the fiddler crab (Uca pugnacious), squid (Lolliguncula brevis), and chicken (Gallus G.g domesticus). Using histological processes, the specimens were prepared and stained so their eye morphology could be viewed under magnification, and accurate, close up histological images could be used for comparative analyses. The organisms selected represent three different domains. The chicken is a domesticated reptile that has few predators. The fiddler crab is one of the most diverse organisms selected because it is an extreme edge species and has multiple predators from different environments. The fiddler crab’s eye was very interesting and an amazing find compared to the other two organisms selected. The squid is found in very deep reaches of the sea and has to use its eyes to avoid predators and search for food. Eye histological images were compared among all three organisms, specifically in the lens and corneal regions, and the fiddler crab had a different eye morphology for the lens while the other two were similar for the lens. In relation to the cornea, all three organisms had similar morphologies

Abstract ID: 13
Abstract Title: User-Friendly Materials Science Database
Student: Jason Willis (jw31@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Yiming Ji (yimingji@uscb.edu)
Author List: Jason Willis, Andrew Wetmore, Dr. Yiming Ji
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
Current materials science database systems are complicated, difficult to understand and not user-friendly. There is not yet an intuitive database for users with limited knowledge of materials science. We surveyed and compared current database systems using common examples. We then evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of each database system and identified key features that would be extended in future systems. Furthermore, we designed a new user-friendly database system that would not only perform competitively to previous systems but would also be usable by general users; more importantly, the system will be open to all users without restrictions for registration process or subscription fees. This research is beneficial to both materials scientists and researchers from other fields. rn This work was supported primarily by the National Science Foundation EPSCoR Program under NSF Award # OIA-1655740. Any Opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Science Foundation.