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USCB Research and Scholarship Day

List of Abstracts in the Category of Hypothesis Driven (Total 14)

Abstract ID:12
Abstract Title:Math, Stress, and Mindfulness, OH MY!: Mindfulness and Stress Reduction
Student:.Katherine Brophy (kbrophy@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor:.Jody Thompson (JTHOMPSO@uscb.edu)
Author List: Jody Thompson, Ph.D., E. Alexandria Cozanitis, Ashley Russell, Brittany Lorentz, Jada Williams, and Katie Brophy
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
Mindfulness has been shown to improve psychological well-being (Brown & Ryan, 2003), decrease implicit racism and ageism (Lueke & Gibson, 2014), and help with addiction (Cropley et al., 2007). The present study seeks to examine whether mindfulness can help students cope with math anxiety. Data collection is currently ongoing, but data is beginning to show trends that mindfulness may helps students cope for very short periods of time, but further investigation is needed. According to Kabat-Zinn “Mindfulness means paying attention in a particular way; on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally” (1994, p. 15). Someone in a mindful state is more sensitive to the perspective and circumstance of his or her behavior. There is an enhanced ability to see ideas and emotions more objectively. The individual can then ruminate on those cognitive actions as ephemeral and distinct events (Bishop, et al., 2004). Bishop, et al. proposed a two part model of mindfulness. The first part is a concentration of attention on the present and consideration of all thoughts and ideas that cross your mind. The second is an openness toward those thoughts that avoids preconceived notions.

Abstract ID:13
Abstract Title:Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Glucokinase
Student:.Emilee Conner (EC2@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor:.Edward D`Antonio (edantonio@uscb.edu)
Author List: Emilee L. Conner, and Edward L. D’Antonio
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Glucokinase (SaGlcK) Emilee L. Conner and Edward L. D’Antonio, Ph.D. Department of Natural Sciences, University of South Carolina Beaufort, 1 University Boulevard, Bluffton, SC 29909 This project focused on the enzymology of Staphylococcus aureus glucokinase, SaGlcK. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the bacteria that can be found inside the nose and on the skin. The disease is spread through human-to-human contact. Community-associated MRSA happens to people who have close skin-to-skin contact with others, such as athletes involved in football and wrestling. Healthcare providers can pass on the germ, simply by treating a patient with the disease and touching another person, due to its highly contagious nature. An infected person can also spread the germ through everyday items they touch, such as bathroom fixtures, medical equipment, exercise equipment, and bed linens. The Staphylococcus aureus bacterium is resistant to most antibiotics, specifically beta-lactams. Many of the most widely used antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin, and monobactams are beta-lactams. In most cases these antibiotics operate by inhibiting bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. In order to understand the resistance to current antibiotics, it was crucial to express and purify the enzyme and possible drug-target SaGlcK. After expression and purification of SaGlcK, kinetic assays were performed. Our overall goal was to determine kinetics for this enzyme and then develop inhibitors to target SaGlcK. Many experimental variables can affect enzyme activity; therefore, such factors were examined. For example, various concentrations of D-Glucose, ranges of pH, and kinetics time optima were tested and evaluated. The results concluded that a pH of 7.6, with a 30 mM concentration of D-glucose, incubated at 37 oC for three hours yielded the optimal kinetics response. This project has been awarded the Magellan Mini-Grant from the University of South Carolina to promote further research.

Abstract ID:3
Abstract Title:Dog Ownership Decreases Aggressive Feelings In The Workplace
Student:.Nathaniel Cooper (ncooper@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor:.Carey Fitzgerald (cfitzger@uscb.edu)
Author List: Carey J. Fitzgerald, Nathaniel T. Cooper, Ashley Russell
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
Research suggests that the presence of pets can decrease people’s stress responses (Miller et al., 2009) and increase cooperation among groups of people working together (Fitzgerald & Danner, 2012). The present study is aimed to investigate whether the presence of one’s pet dog or cat may decrease angry feelings and aggressive behaviors in the workplace. Due to dogs and cats being prohibited in many workplaces, this study is investigating the effects of dog/cat photographs on participants’ emotions and behaviors. Participants were assigned to one of five conditions – these conditions will dictate which image the participants are exposed to while they complete a writing task: 1) Photo of the participant’s dog, 2) Photo of the participant’s cat, 3) Photo of a random dog, 4) photo of a random cat, or 5) Blank screen (Control). N = 201 participants were then asked to write two essays about things that make them very angry. This writing task has been shown in previous research to produce angry feelings in people (Dunn & Schweitzer, 2005). The image or blank screen will remain on the computer screen (full screen) until the entire writing task is completed. After they have completed the writing task, the participants answered a series of questions designed to measure their emotional states (State Anger Scale) and their responses to a series of hypothetical aggressive workplace scenarios in which they are being insulted by a coworker (from Fitzgerald & Ketterer, 2011). Participants who viewed a photo of their own dog reported significantly lower levels of aggression on multiple measures, including state anger and aggressive responses to multiple hypothetical scenarios in which a co-worker insults them.

Abstract ID:6
Abstract Title:People Driving Expensive Cars are Blamed Less for Their Car Accidents
Student:.Christian Dammel (cdammel@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor:.Carey Fitzgerald (cfitzger@uscb.edu)
Author List: Christian Dammel
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
Experimental evidence indicates that many individuals have a positive preference for high status individuals (Jost, Pelham, & Carvallo, 2002). The following study sought to examine if this perceptual bias would appear in perceptions of a car accident. Participants (N = 122) were presented with a fictional scenario regarding a car accident. Participants were then shown a picture of the vehicle prior to the accident. Half of the participants saw a 2015 BMW Alpina B7 (valued at approximately $250,000), while the other half saw a dilapidated 1997 Dodge Neon (valued at approximately $1,000). After viewing the vehicle, participants were asked to answer a series of inferential questions regarding the driver, such as “To what degree do you think this driver is at fault for the accident? “, as well as “To what degree do you think the driver is telling the truth? “, and “Is this driver a cautious driver?”, among others. Results indicated that participants rated the driver of the low status car (1997 Dodge Neon) as significantly more at fault for the accident, and significantly more responsible for the damages, than the driver of the high status car (2015 BMW Alpina B7). However, participants also indicated that the driver of the high status car as significantly less honest than the driver of the low status car. These results are indicative of individuals’ stereotyping in regards to socioeconomic status. Individuals lower on the socioeconomic ladder are often stereotyped as careless and irresponsible (and thus more at fault for a car accident), while individuals who are higher in socioeconomic status are often stereotyped as dishonest. This study illustrates how stereotyping can influence individuals’ judgments of other people even during unfortunate and circumstances such as car accident.

Abstract ID:5
Abstract Title:What's in a name?
Student:.Katelyn Edmond (kedmond@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor:.Jody Thompson (JTHOMPSO@uscb.edu)
Author List: Jody Thompson, Katelyn Edmond, Ragan Jarratt, Maria Chowansky, Miriam Williams
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
Baby naming has become a growing lucrative industry in which individuals can earn income by suggesting appropriate and/or popular baby names to new parents (see Wattenberg, 2013 for an example). However, all scientific research on names, to date, has not examined whether parents’ personalities may influence their preferences for more popular, unique, or traditional baby names. The present study investigated potential correlations between individuals’ personality traits (Five Factor Model and Dark Triad) and their preferences for popular, unique, and traditional baby names. Conscientiousness and Neuroticism were not correlated with baby name preferences. However, Extraversion and Agreeableness were positively correlated with uniqueness of baby names. Extraversion was also positively correlated with popularity of baby names. Openness was negatively correlated with popularity and positively correlated with traditionality. Narcissism was positively correlated with uniqueness baby names. Exploratory analyses also revealed some noteworthy results. This study provides – to our knowledge – the first evidence of parental personality traits being linked to their preferences in baby names.

Abstract ID:10
Abstract Title:Assay Development of Phosphofructokinase-1 from Borrelia Burgdorferi
Student:.Ashley Freeman (afreeman@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor:.Edward D`Antonio (edantonio@uscb.edu)
Author List: Ashley Freeman and Edward L. D'Antonio
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that contains a spirochete bacterium called Borrelia Burgdorferi. Lyme disease affects patients along the northern/mid-east coast regions of the United States. This disease can be transmitted to mammals, birds and humans by black-legged ticks that are infected by B. burgdorferi. Lyme disease is one of the most common borne illnesses in the United States with over 150,000 reported cases to the Center of Disease Control and Prevention since 1982. The B. burgdorferi spirochete uses the glycolytic pathway as an essential pathway for the energy production (ATP and NADH). B. burgdorferi phosphofructokinase-1 (BbPFK-1) is the drug target in the glycolytic pathway. PFK-1 is a regulatory enzyme that catalyzes fructose-6-phosphate and ATP to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and ADP. By inhibiting BbPFK-1, the T. cruzi parasite will undergo apoptosis from the starvation of cellular energy. In order to determine effective compounds that will inhibit BbPFK-1, high-throughput screening (HTS) will eventually be used. The HTS study will screen 13,040 compounds against BbPFK-1. Our studies have focused on being able to miniaturize the assay that will be used for HTS future studies. This assay involves a 4-enzyme coupled system ((1) BbPFK-1, (2) aldolase, (3) triosephosphate isomerase, and (4) Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase). This project was recently awarded funding by the University of South Carolina Office of the Vice President for Research (Magellan Mini-Grant Program).

Abstract ID:14
Abstract Title:Synthesis and Purification of Trypanosoma cruzi Glucosamine Analogue Inhibitors
Student:.Scott Green (scottbg@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor:.Edward D`Antonio (edantonio@uscb.edu)
Author List: Scott B. Green, Robert J. Lanier Jr., Edward L. D'Antonio Ph.D.
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
Synthesis and Purification of Trypanosoma cruzi Glucosamine Analogue Inhibitors Scott B. Green, Robert J. Lanier Jr, Edward L. D’Antonio Ph.D. Department of Natural Sciences, University of South Carolina Beaufort, 1 University Boulevard, Bluffton, SC 29909 Each year, 6-7 million people worldwide are affected by American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas’ disease), caused by the protozoan parasite T. cruzi. The disease is acquired after being bitten by an infected triatomine insect (kissing bug), and leads to lethal complications over a fifteen-year period. This is a neglected tropical disease that impacts many impoverished nations of Central and South America where medical treatment is either unavailable or grossly unaffordable. Medications available to combat Chagas’ disease are antiquated and cause intolerable side effects. These anti-parasitic drugs, benznidazole and nifurtimox, were developed more than 35 years ago. Side effects include, peripheral neuropathy, vomiting, nausea, and insomnia. Since their development, neither medication has been approved by a certifying agency within the United States due to high toxicity. There is an urgent need to develop alternative medicines and new approaches to combat this epidemic. Previous research has shown significant inhibition of glucokinase, a glycolytic enzyme drug-target present in the parasite T. cruzi. Utilizing structure-activity relationships (SAR), we have identified 21 potential candidate compounds that are proposed to bind into the active site of the enzyme which have a similarity to the effective TcGlcK inhibitor 2-benzamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose. D-Glucosamine, D-mannosamine, and D-galactosamine are monosaccharide amines and isomers of the known glucose-based inhibitor found to be potent and selective with respect to the human version of the glucokinase enzyme. From the SAR approach, acyl chloride derivatives were synthesized by a hydrolysis reaction. Optimization, synthesis, and purification details will be presented. To date, 12 of the 21 candidate compounds are ready to move on to extensive analytical testing, including parasite in vitro studies.

Abstract ID:2
Abstract Title:Effect of an imperfect vaccine and behavior change due to the symptoms on the spread of influenza
Student:.Christopher Griffin (cg5@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor:.Kasia Pawelek (kpawelek@uscb.edu)
Author List: Christopher Griffin, Kasia A. Pawelek, Sarah Tobin, and Sara Del Valle
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
The influenza virus is classified as a major public health issue by the World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control. Many individuals are vaccinated annually in the hopes of avoiding the influenza virus. However, some of these individuals are unaware that the vaccine efficacy is never 100% and that protection is acquired approximately two weeks following immunization. Understanding the effects of this misconception and connecting it to behavior change allows for improved predictions of an influenza epidemic. We used an ordinary differential equations model that accounts for behavior change and lack thereof upon receiving an imperfect influenza vaccine. Our model includes four stages of infectiousness that are proportional to the duration, severity, and viral shedding. Our model showed that when more than 75% of the vaccinated population is exposed to the influenza virus due to the failure of the vaccine to protect them against the infection, the epidemiological peak is higher and earlier than if the vaccine was not administered. The highest epidemiological peak resulted when the fraction of vaccinated individuals exposed to the influenza virus was 100%, i.e., when the vaccine completely failed and vaccinated individuals thought that they were protected again influenza virus. Our model also showed that incorporating behavior change in addition to vaccination also significantly lowers and delays the epidemiological peak giving more time to develop control and prevention strategies. This study further shows that behavior change is still necessary during an influenza outbreak even when a given individual is vaccinated. Because of the misconception that influenza vaccines are 100% effective and protection begins immediately, it is likely that some individuals will not change their behavior and contract the influenza virus, leading to an even higher magnitude epidemic.

Abstract ID:4
Abstract Title:Evidence For A Psychophysical Pathogen-Avoidance Mechanism
Student:.Brittany Lorentz (blorentz@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor:.Carey Fitzgerald (cfitzger@uscb.edu)
Author List: Brittany Lorentz
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
Have you ever noticed that kitchen tap water from the sink always tasted different form the water in the bathroom? Humans possess innate disgust mechanisms that aid human survival by keeping us away from things that may possess harmful pathogens (Oaten et al., 2009). Participants were seated in front of a computer and five disposable plastic cups – each labeled with a single number (i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5). Each cup contained 100mL of bottled spring water (NO Water was from campus sources). Participants were told that these five cups contained water from five different sources of drinking water on campus. These images included: 1) a kitchen sink from the campus dining commons, 2) a sink from the campus library men’s restroom, 3) a sink from the campus library women’s restroom, 4) a drinking fountain from the campus dining commons, 5) a drinking fountain from the campus library. The results from the study reflect the possible existence of a perceptual pathogen avoidance mechanism. Participants consistently rated the quality, cleanliness, crispness, and enjoyment of the supposed drinking fountain water as significantly greater than the water they believed was from other sources indicative of higher pathogen prevalence. They also ingested significantly more water from the two “drinking fountain” cups than the other three cups. Therefore, this data points to participants’ gustatory perception being linked to their perception of cleanliness of the water source.

Abstract ID:18
Abstract Title:Establishing a Relationship between Seasonal Patterns of Fish Sound Production and Young-of-the-Year Abundance in the May River and Chechessee Creek South Carolina
Student:.Bradshaw McKinney (mckinnb@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor:.Eric Montie (emontie@uscb.edu)
Author List: Bradshaw McKinney*1; Claire Mueller1; Somers Smott1; Agnieszka Monczak1; Thomas Morgenstern1; Jamileh Soueidan1; Tony Mills2; Chris Marsh2; Eric Montie1 1Department of Natural Sciences, University of South Carolina Beaufort, Bluffton, SC 2The Lowcountry Institute, Okatie, SC
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus), black drum (Pogonias cromis), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), silver perch (Bairdiella chrysoura), southern kingfish (Menticirrhus americanus), spot croaker (Leiostomus xanthurus), spotted sea trout (Cynoscion nebulosaus), and weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) are all fish that belong to the family Sciaenidae and inhabit the waters of North Carolina and South Carolina. Fish within this family produce sounds that are associated with courtship behavior and spawning. Thus, by listening to estuarine soundscapes, we can identify spawning aggregations. The goal of this study was to establish a connection between reproductive activity (as measured by sound production) and young-of-the-year (YOY) abundance. The data collected from DSG-Ocean acoustic recorders provide the exact dates of when spawning seasons begin and end, the duration of these seasons, and a general location of the spawning aggregation. From these data, intertidal creeks near each recording station were chosen and sampled bi-weekly using a haul seine during low tide. Juvenile fish abundance, total length, and biomass were collected throughout the sampling period. Atlantic croaker, black drum, red drum, silver perch, southern kingfish, spot croaker, and spotted seatrout were all collected near the DSG stations. Silver perch YOY were most abundant May through July, spotted seatrout YOY from August through October, and red drum YOY from October to December. The appearance of YOY in the estuary is approximately one month later than the spawning season predicted by the detection of courtship sounds. These patterns provide further support that passive acoustics can aid in monitoring reproductive output in an estuary.

Abstract ID:11
Abstract Title:The Impact of the Georgia Teens Ride with P.R.I.D.E Course on Teens and Parents in Chatham County Georgia
Student:.Rodriqua McQuire (rmcquire@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor:.Lauren Gellar (lgellar@uscb.edu)
Author List: Rodriqua McQuire, Amanda Ramirez, RN, Stephanie Gendron, MPA, Dr. Diana Reindl, and Dr. Lauren Gellar
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
ABSTRACT Background Distracted driving is the number one cause of teen motor vehicular crashes. Due to this, the state of Georgia implemented a program to increase knowledge of driving behaviors, Georgia driving laws, risk factors for distracted driving, and advice for parents to give their teens who are driving. This program is called Georgia Teens Ride with P.R.I.D.E (Parents Reducing Injuries and Driving Error). Methods The P.R.I.D.E. course is taught by two staff members from Memorial University Medical Center’s Trauma Services in Savannah, Georgia. This class is taught once a month at the Savannah-Chatham Police Training Center. Participants in the course range from 14 to 16 years of age along with their parents. Georgia’s Traffic Injury and Prevention Institute (GTIPI) developed a pre-test and post-test questionnaire to test the impact of the intervention on knowledge of safe driving. These tests were comprised of five questions based on Georgia’s driving laws which were provided in the material disseminated during the class. Results Of the thirty teens who participated in the class, there was an overall increase in knowledge from pre-test to post-test. The average increase in knowledge was about 30% from the start of the class until it concluded. Of the thirty-seven parents who participated in the class, there was an overall increase in knowledge as well from pre-test to post-test. The average increase in knowledge was about 23% from the start of the class until it concluded. Conclusion The Georgia Teen Ride with P.R.I.D.E course was effective in increasing knowledge about driving behaviors and laws to teens and their parents in the local communities. Evaluations of the program, completed by parents and teens, also show that P.R.I.D.E provided measurable increases in knowledge about safe driving practices, risk factors, and Georgia law.

Abstract ID:61
Abstract Title:The Effects of A Stress Management Program on Post Injury Patients at The New River Wellness Institute
Student:.jamie Saarloos (saarloos@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor:.Lauren Gellar (lgellar@uscb.edu)
Author List: Jamie Saarloos and Dr. Lauren Gellar
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
Introduction Recovering from an injury can be a major source of stress. According to the American Psychological Association, stress has a physical effect on several systems in our body, which can specifically affect your physical recovery and progress in physical therapy. It is important for patients to recognize stress and practice positive stress management techniques to decrease and prevent stress to increase quality of life and injury prevention. Methods The stress management program included the physical therapy patients recovering from an injury at the New River Wellness Institute. Fliers were posted around the facility to advertise this program. The program was conducted with individual patients after their physical therapy appointment. A pretest containing questions about their current stress levels, practices, and knowledge about stress management was completed. Next, the participant was guided though a breathing exercise. Then the patients received an educational packet and go over the content. After the packet was read and explained, the patient was asked to take a two-week pledge towards stress management. Participants completed a stress management technique everyday and kept a participant log. Patients completed a posttest at two weeks follow up and the pledge was collected. Results 15 total patients participated in the stress management program. Out of the 15 involved only one patient did not sign the two-week pledge. Results from the Pre and Posttest show that participant’s positive stress management practices have increased. Discussion and Lessons learned A stress management program on post injury patients was effective on increasing positive stress management practices. For future implementation of this program, interventionists should advertise this program at least a week prior to implementation to improve recruitment. Additionally, it would be beneficial to implement a pilot of the program with the target population to insure comprehension and to make any needed adjustments.

Abstract ID:1
Abstract Title:Impact of a waning vaccine and altered behavior on the spread of influenza
Student:.Sarah Tobin (stobin@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor:.Kasia Pawelek (kpawelek@uscb.edu)
Author List: Sarah Tobin, Kasia Pawelek, Dominik Ochocinski, Elissa J. Schwartz, and Sara Del Valle
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
Influenza remains one of the major infectious diseases that targets humankind. Understanding within-host dynamics of the virus and how it translates into the spread of the disease at a population level can help us obtain more accurate disease outbreak predictions. We created an ordinary differential equation model with parameter estimates based on the disease symptoms score data to determine various disease stages and parameters associated with infectiousness and disease progression. Having various stages with different intensities of symptoms enables us to incorporate spontaneous behavior change due to the onset/offset of disease symptoms. Additionally, we incorporate the effect of a waning vaccine on delaying the time and decreasing the size of an epidemic peak. Our results showed that the epidemic peak in the model was significantly lowered when public vaccination was performed up to two months past the onset of an epidemic. Also, behavior change in the earliest stages of the epidemic lowers and delays the epidemic peak. This study further provides information on pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions during an influenza epidemic.

Abstract ID:21
Abstract Title:Gender Differences in Mindfulness Training and Risky Self-Concept
Student:.Miriam Williams (miriamw@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor:.Jody Thompson (JTHOMPSO@uscb.edu)
Author List: Miram Williams, Katie Brophy, Dr. Jody Thompson
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
The concept of mindfulness was derived from the Buddhist teachings of Dharma. Through Dharma, a practice of meditation for the awareness and understanding of the internal self, one is acutely mindful of self. Mindfulness-induction has been shown to increase attention and awareness (Brown & Ryan, 2003) and increased levels of attention and awareness have been shown to greatly decrease automaticity (Chambers, et al., 2008). Awareness, being a key part of mindfulness, should be related to the reduction of automatic tendencies. Automatization is described as the capacity to engage in a behavior without being consciously aware of it. While individuals may be typically described as being in a state of automaticity (Langer & Abelson, 1974), de-automatization is possible (Moskowitz & Li, 2011). Mindfulness training and the control participants were separated by participants listening to an audio recording to induce state mindfulness or a neutral audio recording (Cropley, Ussher, & Charitou, 2007). The Risk self-concept implicit associations test (Horcajo,et al., 2014) allows for the study of how much participants automatically associate the self with risky or safe actions. Using IAT has allowed for experimenters to test the extent to which risk as become part of the active self-concept in participants. The purpose of this study was to find if there were differences in the risky self-concept of males and females and if mindfulness would alter the risky self-concept in males and females differently. Results of this study showed an interaction of sex and mindfulness training did occur at the p < .056 level. Findings were that males and females were practically identical in their risky self-concept when they received no mindfulness training. However, females that received mindfulness training were much more risk averse. Males that received mindfulness training remained at a similar level to males and females without mindfulness training.