◀︎ Back to Main Menu

USCB Research and Scholarship Day

List of Abstracts in the Category of Issue Based (Total 30)

Abstract ID: 67
Abstract Title: Chemical Restraints’ Impact on Health Outcomes
Student: Lakara Alston (gardnels@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Danielle Johnson, Lakara Alston
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
In the healthcare setting, a chemical restraint involves the inappropriate administration of a sedative or antipsychotic medication to control or limit undesirable patient behaviors. Chemical restraint utilization has increased as patient loads and conditions have continued to expand and escalate in complexity. These restraints pose a great danger to patients’ health outcomes and safety. Evidence suggests that when treated with chemical restraints, patients may encounter cognitive, physical, and psychological consequences. The purpose of this research study is to highlight the reasons for which chemical restraints are being utilized and to offer alternatives in the form of realistic protocol recommendations and interventions that reduce the necessity of chemical restraints. A systematic literature review was conducted to understand the magnitude of the problems posed by these types of restraints and to validate possible alternatives. When the harmful side effects associated with chemical restraints are avoided due to its decreased use, patient and staff safety are enhanced. Studies confirm that chemical restraints should be used as a last resort and other options, to include therapeutic communication, complementary and alternative medicine approaches, and de-escalation techniques, should be implemented first. Nurses are tasked with promoting patient dignity, respect, and autonomy whenever possible. Refraining from using chemical restraints aids in building rapport and increases the patient’s ability to actively participate in his or her own health care. While every alternative to chemical restraints may not be effective on every patient, it is important for nurses to start with the least restrictive method and justify the use of whichever tool is utilized. Ultimately, when delivering chemical restraints for reasons outside of the medical indication, nurses jeopardize their ability to deliver optimum health outcomes and increase the risk of causing undue harm to the patients and staff.

Abstract ID: 21
Abstract Title: Mandated Staffing Ratios
Student: Karri Bogart (karri@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Karri Bogart, Elizabeth Douglas
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Abstract The profession of nursing was established to provide care for the sick and injured. Emphasis is placed on patient trust and safety but often nursing resources are inadequate due to lack of staffing that nurses are unable to perform their duties effectively. This promotes an atmosphere of distrust in our patients, unsafe work environments, and leads to employee dissatisfaction. Mandated staffing ratios are currently being considered as a federal resolution to this issue and legislation has been passed in 15 states along with the District of Columbia to address nurse staffing. Seven states require hospitals to have committees responsible for staffing, five states require mandatory public reporting, but California is the only state that requires staffing ratios to be maintained at all times. The purpose of this research study is to explore the effectiveness of staffing ratios by evaluating data from peer-reviewed articles dated 2013 to present as well as current state and federal legislation guidelines and the American Nurses Association position paper regarding staffing. Results of these studies indicate a strong correlation between optimum staffing and reduced patient mortality, yet other factors such as staff certification and ancillary staff may also contribute to this correlation. There is strong evidence that supports an increase in nurse satisfaction and retention rates when staffing ratios are implemented. Public reporting would create a transparency and organizational accountability. Communities differ in the population they serve just as nursing units differ; therefore,floor nurse input needs to be considered when developing staffing plans as well as the acuity of the patient population and the skills required to care for them. This will allow policies to be tailored to the population they serve and allow for easier implementation.

Abstract ID: 56
Abstract Title: Kala-azar’s Correlations with Structural Differences
Student: Daniella Borjas (dborjas@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Swati DebRoy (sdebroy@uscb.edu)
Author List: Daniella Borjas, Robert Lanier
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Kala-azar (Indian Visceral Leishmaniasis) is the second largest parasitic killer in the world and is among one of the most dangerous of the neglected tropical diseases. Bihar is the area of focus because it has the highest prevalence and mortality rates of Kala-azar. There are high levels of underreporting of Kala-azar because of the poverty-stricken areas it inhabits, and private health providers are dealing with these cases but are not required to report the cases they come across. The correlation of underreporting and the number of clinics in each county of Bihar, along with other factors including the roads and amount of electricity used in each county and recognizing a trend the number of cases in Kala-azar is the goal. This correlation will correspond with the poverty levels of each area and show the percentage of underreporting. Electricity will be measured per 1000 square kilometers along with roads. The number of cases will be measured per one million individuals. Five districts above and five districts below the Ganges River will be analyzed to report the factors that affect Kala-azar. Patna as the capital of Bihar is analyzed alone and compared to the data found from districts above and below the Ganges River. Through analysis, as expected, it was shown that Patna had a much higher number of roads and clinics.

Abstract ID: 62
Abstract Title: Legislating the BSN Degree in Nursing; Sound Decision or Regulatory Overreach?
Student: Nancy Cosgrove (cosgrovn@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Nancy Cosgrove
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
This issue-based paper will focus on the long-standing entry-into-practice debate dating to the 1940's. There are two levels of preparation for registered nurses. The associate degree in nursing (ADN) requires two years of study focusing on clinical skills, while the baccalaureate degree in nursing (BSN) requires four years of study that includes research and leadership. With an aging and diverse population, many with complex medical issues, evidence supports the need for nurses with a higher level of education beyond the ADN. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends 80% of the nursing workforce hold a BSN degree by 2020. In 2017, New York passed legislation, entitled “BSN in 10” requiring nurses to earn their BSN degree within ten years of initial licensure or forfeit their license altogether. This paper will discuss the challenges of the New York requirement and examine whether this legislation is a sound decision or regulatory overreach. Methods used to answer this question involved reviewing literature published about the differences in an associate degree and bachelor's degree in nursing and published studies about patient outcome differences depending on the education level of nurses. Literature was further searched to gain information on the background of the ADN-BSN debate and to learn the challenges to achieving the Institute of Medicine's recommendation. Literature showed patient outcomes improved with higher degreed nurses; BSN and higher degree nurses are better equipped to handle an aging and diverse population, and that other states are following New York's lead. In conclusion, requiring a BSN for entry-level nursing may be out of reach for many nurses, yet legislating a BSN degree within ten years of licensure shows promise and supports the education and knowledge needed for today's healthcare environment.

Abstract ID: 57
Abstract Title: The Role of the SANE
Student: Sealy Crider (Scrider@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Sealy Crider
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Every 98 seconds an American is sexually assaulted. These assaults can occur anywhere but are often reported to health care providers by victims who become patients of the American health care system. To understand the role of the registered nurse and more specifically the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) in sexual assault cases a review of available literature was conducted. It was found that SANE certified nurses are experts in holistic care for all patients that are the victims of sexual assault or sexual violence regardless of gender, gender identity, race, or sexuality. SANEs are carefully educated and trained to provide comprehensive care from the initial point of contact through the examination, as well as the legal process. SANEs are often limited resources employed by various agencies such as health departments, public hospitals, and law enforcement agencies, and not-for-profit agencies. There are approximately 400 SANE programs in the entire United States and only 10 in Canada. This equates to roughly 8 SANE programs in each state in the US. Program size can vary anywhere from one or two SANEs to ten or 12 SANEs. As a result of the limited access to SANEs most sexual violence patients are examined in emergency departments by providers minimally trained in forensic evidence collection. Studies have shown public awareness of SANE programs and accessibility has increased the rate of sexual assault reporting and successful prosecution. Increasing sexual assault awareness, educating vulnerable populations and the general public on SANEs, and improving SANE accessibility through public funding and grants has the potential to improve patient outcomes, increase successful prosecution, reduce post-assault emotional and psychosocial trauma in victims, and change the social stigmas directed towards sexual assault victims.

Abstract ID: 4
Abstract Title: Hispanic Cultures and Businesses in the Lowcountry
Student: Geordy Del Cid (gdelcid@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Lukasz Pawelek (lpawelek@uscb.edu)
Author List: Geordy Del Cid
Program: Humanities
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
I am investigating how the agglomeration of Hispanics in the Lowcountry (1) has shaped the local businesses and how they (2) respond to the needs of Hispanic community as well as positively affect growth of the diverse Hispanic cultures. I gathered and analyzed 2000-2016 census data in order to depict the growth of Hispanic community in the Lowcountry. I anticipate that the growth of Hispanic population would correlate with the demand for Hispanic businesses, services and specific products. Additionally, I have conducted personal interviews with store-owners in order to understand the demand for the foreign produce and services, which are otherwise unavailable in general grocery stores. One of the benefits of Hispanic growth in the Lowcountry is the annual Latino Music Festival that not only cherishes the diversity of Hispanic cultures, but also reflects the increasing demand of Hispanic businesses and services within our area.

Abstract ID: 7
Abstract Title: Childhood Obesity Trends in South Carolina’s Jasper County
Student: Shae Gantt (shaeg@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Swati DebRoy (sdebroy@uscb.edu)
Author List: Shae Gantt
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Obesity is a growing health hazard in the United States where more than one in three adults are obese. In South Carolina, for 10-17 year olds, the combined overweight and obesity (OO) rate as of 2016, is 32.9%, which is ranked 17th (out of 51 states). Since obese children lead to obese adults, childhood obesity needs to be addressed and curbed urgently. A child is considered overweight or obese if their body mass index (BMI) is at or above the 85th percentile. In this project, we will utilize mathematical models to analyze the BMI trend in 3rd, 5th and 8th graders in Jasper County School District from 2009 – 2015 and possibly predict future trends. The ordinary differential equations model obesity like an infectious disease, where weight change is associated with social interactions which influence lifestyle patterns. The children in normal weight category are considered susceptible who can get “infected” to become OO through natural causes or through interaction with other OO children. Likewise, the OO children can also lose weight to “recover” from obesity and eventually become susceptible again. To estimate the model parameters like rates of moving to OO classes and back, we utilize BMI data from Jasper County Middle school which was collected in relation to the NIH funded salad-bar study. We will further analyze the difference in these parameters (if significant), if this data is sub-categorized by race and gender. The knowledge generated from this project will ultimately assist authorities to develop effective and sustainable control measures to reverse the obesity epidemic in school children in the Lowcountry.

Abstract ID: 19
Abstract Title: Influenza: Virus, Treatment, and Prevention
Student: Michele Guscio (michelee@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Michele Guscio
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Influenza is a common seasonal illness which is very often misunderstood and mistaken for many other illnesses. The purpose of this project was to present the facts about influenza, its spread, vaccinations against it, and treatment in order to dispel the many myths and the misinformation that surrounds this viral illness. A review of evidence-based research and well-vetted websites such as South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SC DHEC) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was conducted to obtain factual information regarding influenza and its spread, available treatments, and prevention. Because influenza is particularly devastating and potentially lethal to vulnerable populations, better education regarding the illness is crucial in the effort to reduce the spread and impact of the illness. The conclusion of this project is that education of the general public regarding influenza is critical in the pursuit of slowing the spread of influenza each year and reducing the annual impact of the illness.

Abstract ID: 3
Abstract Title: The Relationship Between the Media's Portrayal of Gender and Body Images
Student: Rebecca Killian (rkillian@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Randy Lamkin (lamkin@uscb.edu)
Author List: Rebecca A Killian
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to determine the impacts of gender and body images due to the media’s conventional portrayal and representations of males and females. There is a developing issue in our society of the media portraying genders in a stereotypical, unrealistic, and distorted manner that is creating individuals to be unsatisfied with their bodies. The media’s portrayal of body images for both males and females is a critical issue negatively impacting individual’s self-esteem about their own body type. Society specifically the media has influenced and social constructed this idea that males should be muscular and females should be skinny. Three-hundred and fifty-eight individuals completed an online survey that was created to determine an individual’s thoughts on their own body versus their thoughts on the media’s portrayal of bodies based off of gender. This data was used to determine whether an individual felt as if their gender and body type was properly portrayed in the media as a stereotypical unrealistic body type and was broken down to determine if males and females have pressure due to their gender to have a certain body weight, size, type, and shape. Ultimately, the finding was that many individuals were unsatisfied with their bodies as well as with the way that the media portrayed their body. However, it is important to note that this data was collected through a convenience sample making it not generalizable.

Abstract ID: 30
Abstract Title: USCB’s Student-led Health & Wellness Fair: Increasing Awareness of Local Health Services
Student: Deystinee Lightner (lightned@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Diana Reindl (dreindl@uscb.edu)
Author List: Deystinee Lightner, Diana Reindl
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Introduction: Student driven health and wellness fairs can assist in building connections with neighboring health care facilities and services. The purpose of USCB’s 2018, 6th annual health and wellness fair (HWF) was to increase health consciousness through education and health promotion. The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the degree to which the HWF was beneficial to attendees. Methods: The 2018 6th Annual HWF was co-planned by four USCB entities including: the Health Promotion Club (HPC), Student Nursing Association (SNA), Campus Recreation and Student Life. Invitations were sent to over 60 local health organizations to serve as vendors for the event. Other methods of invitation included in-person and over the phone requests. The HPC assessed participant benefits using an electronic-based survey through Survey Monkey. Results: A total of 34 vendors participated in the HWF. There were 121 respondents to the electronic-based survey among those who participated. The majority of respondents were female (82%), students (82%), aged 18-25 (77%). A strong majority (63%) “strongly agreed” that that the HWF taught them about new local resources they could use to better their health, that it was beneficial (60%), and encouraged them toward a healthier lifestyle (57%). Conclusion; Most participants documented benefits from attending the HWF. Learning of new, local health resources was a major benefit to students attending. Building connections between vendors and student participants to leverage opportunities outside of the HWF were created. These connections and continued partnerships outside the HWF represent useful data to track in the future.

Abstract ID: 66
Abstract Title: Pysical Restraint Alternatives
Student: Pedro Mendoza (pmendoza@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Paula Hooks-Clements, Pedro Mendoza
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
The use of physical restraints in health care is not a new concept. Physical restraints have been used for centuries especially in the care of patients with psychiatric disorders. However, the use of restraints has now become common practice in all settings,including critical care, geriatric care and acute care. This common place practice has led to the development of an international movement to limit or end the use of restraints as evidenced by the standards set by such accrediting agencies as the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Services and the Joint Commission. After a literature search regarding the topic of physical restraints, it was discovered that studies of late have investigated the effectiveness and dangers associated with physical restraint usage, the patient and nurse views toward the usage of physical restraints,and alternatives to physical restraints. Additionally,changes to practice are suggested in many studies. Some views speak out against restraint usage based on the limits placed on patient’s autonomy while others claim that physical restraints do not prevent harm to the patient as previously believed. These regulations are specific for each place of care, but the same general requirements are set forth: where safety is an issue, orders are required and consistent assessment is necessary to avoid risks to patients. This paper explores the current usage of physical restraints, how this usage became so common place, the views and emotions of those who use physical restraints, the effects (positive and negative) of physical restraint usage, and alternatives which may exist to physical restraint usage.

Abstract ID: 71
Abstract Title: Physician Assisted Suicide and or Euthanasia; Qualifying Clinical Criteria, Legalization, Terminology and Attitudes/Beliefs of the Public
Student: Regina Mitchell (rkm@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Regina Mitchell
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
This issue based project focuses on exploring the factual information concerning physician assisted suicide and or euthanasia such as qualifying clinical diagnoses required, demographic areas in which it is legal (possible demographics for future legalization), statistical prevalence of the practice, and public opinion and/or reactions to the procedure. Peer reviewed scholarly articles collected from several internet databases and medical journals are employed in order to clearly define and dispel misconceptions related to the terminology of last resort patient care options such as aggressive symptom management, stopping or not starting life-sustaining therapy, palliative sedation (potentially to unconsciousness), voluntarily stopping eating and drinking, physician-assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia.

Abstract ID: 15
Abstract Title: Hospital-Acquired Infections: CLABSI & CAUTI
Student: Ireanna Morrall (morralli@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Cetina Tolbert & Ireanna Morrall
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Hospital acquired infections (HAI) affect thousands of people within the United States and result in an annual increase of billions of dollars associated with healthcare costs. Infections are a recognized complication of indwelling devices such as central line associated infections (CLABSI) and urinary catheter associated infections (CAUTI) within the hospital setting. Due to the preventability of HAI, the aim is to eliminate or significantly reduce the number of HAI. Examining the potential to eliminate HAI using two prototypes: CLABSI and CAUTI, peer reviewed literature was analyzed dating from 2013 to present using the search terms hospital acquired infections, central line associated infections, catheter associated infections, and preventing hospital acquired infections. CLABSI occurs when there is a break in sterile procedure during the insertion of a catheter into a large vein in the patient’s neck, chest, or groin area, which allows bacteria to enter the bloodstream. Trends in CLABSI drastically decreased in all areas of the hospital by approximately 50% from 2008 through 2016. An estimated 75% of urinary tract infections in the hospital were associated with urinary catheters, and the main contributing factor to urinary tract infections was prolonged use of urinary catheters. Through the analysis of the national standardized infection ratios from 2009 through 2016, there was an estimated 50% decline in CAUTI cases in all locations of the hospital. Implications of the review included preventive techniques per the development of universal guidelines that have aided in decreasing the incidence and prevalence of most HAI.

Abstract ID: 55
Abstract Title: Moving Towards Educational Equity on Predominantly White Campuses
Student: Corta`Nasha Mutcherson (mutcherc@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Najmah Thomas (nthomas2@uscb.edu)
Author List: Corta'Nasha Mutcherson
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Historically, African-Americans are indirectly denied basic rights. An example of such rights, is the right to an adequate education. While the percentage of Black students that are earning high school diplomas has drastically increased, there is still the ample gap between the percentage of Black students that obtain college degrees compared to White students that obtain college degrees. This proves even worse for Black students that are enrolled in predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Black students at PWIs tend to have lower grade point averages, lower retention rates, and an overall less satisfactory college experience than their White peers (Guiffrida & Dudith, 2010). Black students adapt to the environment of PWIs through identifying with Black faculty and finding refuge in Black organizations offered on their campuses (2010).

Abstract ID: 8
Abstract Title: Effect of the Media on the Preference of Hospitalized Birth in America
Student: Brianna Norwood (bnorwood@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Randy Lamkin (lamkin@uscb.edu)
Author List: Brianna Norwood
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
The purpose of this research project was to identify and explore the social institutions that influence the Mcdonaldization of Birth. The sociologist who developed this terminology, George Ritzer, explained that Mcdonaldization occurs when the characteristics of a society become similar to that of a fast-food restaurant. The key interest of the study was too understand the preference of hospitalized birthing practice in America. Much of the inspiration for this research was due to an interest in understanding how the media can be a powerful tool of persuasion and influence. The experience of birth is represented by the media as being a painful and traumatic experience that requires hospitalization. The media then becomes a powerful influence in the choice to take part in this routinized birthing practice. In order to test the views of hospitalization vs. natural birth a survey was created on SurveyMonkey. The survey was taken by 103 respondents, both male and female, between the ages of 18-75+ years. In the study a “natural” birth was defined as anywhere outside of a hospital setting such as with a midwife or in a birthing center. 64% of respondents felt that having a hospitalized birth was the safest option for their child. 69% of respondents agreed that when they watch reality T.V. women who are giving birth are anxious and in pain. 80% of respondents agreed that women in movies are always in pain during childbirth. Though the results were neutral when asked if women in movies and on T.V. appear to have birthing complications, 81% of respondents felt they should have a hospital birth in case complications were to arise. The conclusion of the study shows the prevalence of hospitalized birth due to the safety of the child and fear of complications along with the negative outlook that is displayed by the media. Further research is required to understand exactly how the media affects the preference of hospitalized birth.

Abstract ID: 78
Abstract Title: The Cry for HELP in Today’s Educational System
Student: Keshawna Parson (kparson@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Najmah Thomas (nthomas2@uscb.edu)
Author List: Keshawna Parson
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to identify zoning regulations that have restricted the educational systems of today. Citizens often choose their residence based on the living expenses rather than the quality of local schools available to them or their children. Because of this, many parents are forced into sending their kids to low income schools. As a result, children receive insufficient educational resources as well as low education. John Locke believed that the human mind at birth is a complete, but receptive “blank slate” upon which experience imprints knowledge. If all people are born with blank slates to be educated, then why are some students excelling while others are dropping out? The government tends to give out more finical support to specific demographic more than others. Research shows that only about half of the funding for public schools in the United States comes from the federal and state budget. The other half comes from local property taxes, which varies greatly between rich and poor districts. We see these education laws and zoning laws as “unconstitutional” and funding of schooling being “inequitably distributed.” This researcher aims to educate the audience on the effects of expanding barriers/expanding equal education, socioeconomic segregation, and the limitation of low-income families' schooling choices. Initial findings suggest that there are attainable ways to achieve this goal of equitable education for all.

Abstract ID: 28
Abstract Title: Black Panther Vs. Black History
Student: kenneth qualls (kqualls@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Melissa Jacobs (jmelissa@uscb.edu)
Author List: Kenneth Qualls
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
This research analyzes the conflict that arises between King T’challa and his long-lost relative turned arch-nemesis Killmonger in Marvel’s 2018 rendition of their popular comic book series Black Panther. Ultimately, the essay will examine how their conflict directly correlates to the differences of opinions amongst the Civil Rights Movement, and the Black Panther Party during the fight for equality amongst African Americans in the United States which began in the early 1950s. The Identity Theory and Cross-cultural Theory will be used to conduct the analyzation of this phenomena and assist to support scholarly research that relates to this topic.

Abstract ID: 64
Abstract Title: Midwifery: Current Trends and Issues
Student: Kelly Schnaubelt (Schnaube@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Amonae Russel, Kelly Schnaubelt
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Midwifery as a profession is often criticized about its efficacy and potency in health care. A stigma currently exists in many Americans regarding the midwifery profession’s safety and scope of practice in and out of the hospital setting. Although the number of midwife-assisted in-home and in-hospital births has steadily risen over the past decade, the profession’s stigma is exacerbated by many states' legislation restricting autonomy. This paper takes a generalized approach to discuss Midwifery’s current trends and challenges regarding clinical practice, such as restrictive legislation and prescriptive authority, and barriers to education. Discussing all current challenges is not within the scope of this paper, however challenges such as business related barriers, third party reimbursement, homebirth legislation, and educational preceptor experiences are examined. Solutions and potential results regarding each challenge are discussed based on analysis of peer-reviewed literature and evidence-based research. Removing barriers to the practice and education of Midwives and changing the culture surrounding birth will transform the profession. In turn, this transformation is expected to result in betterment of the preparation of midwifery students, daily practice of current Midwives, and experiences of the women being served.

Abstract ID: 2
Abstract Title: Sociological Factors and Their Effect on Diet Success
Student: Marina Smith (marinas@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Randy Lamkin (lamkin@uscb.edu)
Author List: Marina Smith
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to identify the sociological and environmental factors that contribute to the onset of a diet or weight-loss journey, and study whether or not that journey was successful. The idea originated from the fact that many people who start diets and exercise plans do not successfully complete them. I am passionate about health and fitness and plan to become a registered dietitian. My passion, together with obesity is prevalent in the United States, I was curious to discover why losing weight and starting a new diet was so difficult for so many. The study was conducted by 89 people aged from 18 to over 65, who completed an online survey about their dieting experiences. Results suggested that most people start a diet between the ages of 18-25, and did so to feel confident about themselves, be healthier, and look a certain way. 90% of surveyors cut a food group from their diet (46% cut out carbs and sugar), and 83% returned to their old food habits after the diet period was over. 53% of surveyors had a successful diet, with 53% losing more weight than they expected. Factors leading to a successful diet included having a good mindset and enjoying the diet and exercise program, while the factors leading to an unsuccessful diet included wanting to eat “good” foods (not enjoying their new diet), and wanting to stop dieting due to not seeing results and lack of enjoyment. This research concluded that there needs to be more focus on sustainable dieting, and helping people lose weight while still enjoying aspects of their previous lifestyle. This can ensure that more people are able to lose unhealthy weight, and switch to a healthy lifestyle.

Abstract ID: 10
Abstract Title: 2017 Beaufort County Quality of Life Report
Student: Kayla Smith (kaylabs@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Carey Fitzgerald (cfitzger@uscb.edu)
Author List: Kayla Smith
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Many cities across the United States have begun implementing annual surveys assessing their residents’ quality of life. In measuring specific indicators of social well-being, local governments and organizations have improved their residents’ quality of life. Our study adapted questions from these various quality of life measures that have had been administered across the United States. Questions regarding ease of access to doctors, hospitals, healthy foods, parks, and playgrounds, as well as perceptions regarding safety, crime, traffic, and racial and religious diversity were asked. N = 1,062 completed the survey. The sample consisted of Beaufort County residents of various ages (approximately 45% of the sample were from the Silent Generation, while approximately 20% were baby boomers, approximately 15% were from Generation X, and 20% were Millenials). Ultimately, their perception of Beaufort County was quite positive – over 90% of residents rated Beaufort County as a “good” or “excellent” place to live and to retire. However, less than 50% of surveyed residents rated Beaufort County as a “good” or “excellent” place to work. Some generational differences also emerged. For example, individuals from Generation X, Baby Boomers, and the Silent Generation rated community relations/perceptions regarding controversial issues such as race and law enforcement as much more positive than Millenials. In addition, the older generations (i.e., Generation X, Baby Boomers, and the Silent Generation) rated the priority for future improvements to Beaufort County as significantly less important than Millenials ratings. This indicates that Millenials place greater importance on improving the quality and availability of certain aspects of the county – including affordable housing, the healthcare system, public transportation, public education, the environment, traffic, and the number of available jobs – for the future of Beaufort County residents than older generations do.

Abstract ID: 70
Abstract Title: The Portrayal of Nursing in the Media
Student: Sarah Spidel (sspidel@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Sarah Ashtyn Spidel
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
This research paper focuses on the negative portrayal of nursing in the media. Nursing stereotypes and prejudiced media production are shown as having a powerful influence on the public’s opinion of health care. The researcher uses peer-reviewed, scholarly articles collected from several online databases. The research demonstrates negative views of nursing and inaccuracies about the profession reflected in children’s literature, television shows, Hollywood movies, and social media platforms. The impact of the media’s portrayal of nursing not only affects those in need of medical attention, but also those currently practicing, those considering joining the nursing workforce, and the profession in general. Research suggests nurses are the first line of defense in addressing and correcting the negative portrayal through advocacy, seeking higher education, and holding administrative and managerial positions.

Abstract ID: 46
Abstract Title: Fecal Coliform Bacteria and Oysters
Student: Haley Sutcliffe (hks@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Swati DebRoy (sdebroy@uscb.edu)
Author List: Haley Sutcliffe, Ryan Reynolds, Alan Warren
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
An important problem in many urban environments is the contamination of surface waters. This contamination involves the fecal coliform bacteria. Fecal coliform bacteria is an anaerobic, non-sporing, rod shaped bacteria. It lives in the digestive tracks of warm blooded animals. This bacterium isn’t all harmful but some are pathogenic to humans. The pathogenic bacterium can cause diseases in humans. Some of these diseases include gastroenteritis, ear infections, typhoid, hepatitis A, and cholera. The way fecal coliform bacteria get into our creeks, rivers, lakes and oceans is by waste from livestock, waste from pets, wildlife, and humans by rain runoff and getting carried into storm drains. The presence of fecal coliform bacteria in an area’s waters might mean the presence of the type of bacteria that can cause diseases in humans. The presence of this bacteria can be tested by doing a fecal coliform test. DHEC has 25 shellfish management areas throughout coastal SC. These areas are monitored to provide data that will show the sanitary conditions of coastal shellfish and to make sure it is safe to consume local oysters. In this project we will be analyzing the data that was collected in the Okatie River area to see if there is any correlation between the salinity and the fecal coliform. DHEC measures the fecal coliform bacteria in surface water samples every month at countless stations throughout Beaufort County’s watersheds. Depending on the outcome of these samples, the collection of shellfish in the area may be put on hold until the fecal coliform levels are at the appropriate concentration. Fecal coliform concentrations in areas with high storm water flow tend to be high. This make the measurement of fecal coliform bacteria in the coastal area important because of the increasing population growth.

Abstract ID: 27
Abstract Title: Yoga With Dogs
Student: Kaelyn Tatro (ktatro@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Diana Reindl (dreindl@uscb.edu)
Author List: Bailey Craven and Kaelyn Tatro
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Yoga with Dogs Yoga with Dogs is an intervention that aimed to reduce stress among college students at the University of South Carolina Beaufort (USCB). We noticed that many students report feeling stressed about numerous issues related to college life, but they do not have the knowledge or skills to reduce or eliminate this stress. During the course of this intervention, we completed the following activities: 1) a pre-evaluation survey to determine important areas of focus; 2) a Yoga with Dogs intervention where we facilitated a yoga session using dogs as companions to help our peers reduce stress; 3) an evaluation of the yoga intervention that provided feedback on these activities; and 4) a post-evaluation survey to measure the impact of the intervention. We found that the majority of college students at USCB are stressed about schoolwork, and that this stress persists until the end of the semester. However, many of our peers enjoyed being around dogs and said that it reduced their feelings of stress during the intervention. We found the Yoga With Dogs intervention to be a healthy, effective way to reduce stress among USCB students. During the course of the intervention, we found that students actually felt a sense of relief. The yoga was a good way to exercise and practice breathing, while the dogs made it enjoyable and entertaining. This intervention was successful, and we recommend incorporating this and similar activities throughout the school year to provide ongoing stress reduction strategies for students at USCB.

Abstract ID: 20
Abstract Title: Black Men and Mass Incarceration in the United States
Student: Tamia Thompson (tamiat@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Najmah Thomas (nthomas2@uscb.edu)
Author List: Tamia Thompson
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Why are the rates of incarcerations higher for African American men than any other race in the United States? Although the data gives reason for people to think so, the reasoning is not because African Americans are more violent, or because they commit more crimes. This mass incarceration of African American men is a result of systemic racism towards African Americans within public policies like the Three Strikes Policy. This is important because men of all races are committing crimes at very similar rates, but the black men are serving time at higher rates than men of any other race. This is important because this country is built on the notion that every man is equal and that the system is fair for all when in all actuality, it is not. There are laws that discriminate against minorities which allows them to be targeted by law enforcement. This leads to black men being in jail more and serving more time than others. This unjust system must come to a stop. New laws need to be implemented to help black men in these situations. There needs to be some changes made to old laws that are causing these problems as well. To make progress on the problem, this paper will provide evidence of laws that play a part of this problem and how they affect black men. This is an issue-based research paper. I will be looking specifically at statistics of the rates at which men of multiple races are incarcerated here in the United States. This research measures the likeliness of black men being incarcerated in comparison with the likeliness of men of other races being incarcerated. Potential answers could be that black men are targeted more and that black men are less educated on the system.

Abstract ID: 59
Abstract Title: Education in Impoverished Communities
Student: K`Andra Thompson (kandra@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Najmah Thomas (nthomas2@uscb.edu)
Author List: K'Andra Thompson
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
When it comes to education in poor areas, the students are not getting the best education they need. Many of the students are reading way below their grade level and testing below the standard guidelines. With all of this going on in the school systems, this is leading to students dropping out and committing crimes. This is important because the students feel as if they will never make it where they want to be because of the area they go to school in. They see and hear what people think about them so they think that all they will ever be good for is dropping out and being in the streets. If we continue to ignore the problem of students in poor communities not getting the proper education and causing them to turn to violence, our crime rate, teenage pregnancy, drug usage, and death rates will increase. I believe that to change this outcome, the school system needs to start by making the schools look presentable on the outside as well as the inside. That means grounds upkeep, no graffiti on the walls, no broken windows, up to date computers and textbooks. The students want to be able to come to a safe and clean environment away from what they normally see. I also think that the school systems should add more after school programs. This will give the students more to do outside of school instead of just going back in an environment where they may get in trouble. If the schools create a safer and cleaner school environment, then students are less likely to drop out, death rates and teen pregnancy will decrease.

Abstract ID: 37
Abstract Title: Analyzing the King James Bible & the Geneva Bible
Student: Shayra Valdez (savaldez@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Robert Landrum (rlandrum@uscb.edu)
Author List: Shayra Valdez
Program: Humanities
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Shayra Valdez Prof. Landrum History 310 Student Research Abstract Analyzing the King James Bible & the Geneva Bible My student research poster will explore the similarities and differences between the King James Bible (from the 16th Century) and the Geneva Bible (from the late 15th Century). These bibles are derived from similar materials--Greek, Latin, and Aramaic originals—but they were translated for different purposes. The King James Bible was commissioned for congregations to listen to. King James did not intend for his bible to be studied by individual believers (unlike the Geneva Bible). The Geneva Bible was published 51 years before the King James Bible. It was used by generations of English protestants, including William Shakespeare and Oliver Cromwell. The Geneva Bible was a major achievement for Calvinist Protestants. It was their first bible translated to English from the original languages. It was enormously popular amongst the public, and beloved among puritans for it marginalia and notes. James, however, believed that the marginal notes and footnotes were absurd. The bible also had Calvinistic views, which King James despised. King James commissioned a committee of 47 men to create a Bible with the sound of authority. Despite its archaic language, the King James (or “authorized version”) became an instant classic. Its verses had rhythm, its phrasing had grandeur, and its language was harmonious. It still exerts a profound influence on English Literature even after four centuries.

Abstract ID: 50
Abstract Title: Teaching Social Studies Through Rock and Roll
Student: London Walter (lwalter@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Beth Hammond (ebrinker@uscb.edu)
Author List: London I Walter
Program: Education
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Teaching social studies through Rock and Roll music is social studies. It crosses social barriers and cultures while bringing generations together. Music is the history of human life. Rock and Roll’s popularity in America grew in the late 1940s and 1950s with its immediate influences coming from blues, jazz, gospel, folk, bluegrass and slave spirituals. The original roots can be traced back centuries to African drum beats and Indo-European countries’ folk music making its way to America through immigration- thus perpetuating America’s melting pot. Rock and Roll and its immediate roots provide an examination of American history since it expresses the thoughts and feelings of people during a specific time period. It can be used to portray universal themes and affirm Man’s ultimate struggle between himself, others and nature. Rock and Roll is a widely untapped resource that teachers can use at any instructional level. It brings history to life, gives it context, and provides real-world meaning for students that they will connect to. TeachRock.org provides teachers with valid and multi-disciplinary lessons that include a variety of resources to teach history and all facets of social studies. These lessons bring music into the classroom while staying in context and following state and national educational standards. TeachRock.org helps teachers open the door of the world for students and influence any teacher’s ability to create their own Rock lessons that empower students to become critical thinkers. Utilizing Rock and Roll will allow teachers to truly engage students in learning.

Abstract ID: 77
Abstract Title: Multi-Strawberry Stem Remover
Student: Jade Wickwire (wickwire@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Yiming Ji (yimingji@uscb.edu)
Author List: Jade Wickwire
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
The purpose of my research, is to target the need in retail stores that are primary bulk sellers of food that have incorporated produce departments. In inventing a mechanical appliance able to remove multiple strawberry stems at once in the hope of enhancing productivity within these departments.

Abstract ID: 9
Abstract Title: Implementing Theater in Writing Pedagogy: Promoting Learning Through Student Engagement
Student: Madeleine Wilkinson (mbw1@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Erin McCoy (emccoy@uscb.edu)
Author List: Madeleine Wilkinson
Program: English Theater and Liberal Studies
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
A first-year composition classroom presents many challenges to educators and students alike. Varying expectations and beliefs from professors in the discipline, their colleagues, and the students themselves create confusion regarding the information taught and the skills students should have mastered by the end of the course. The students in these classrooms represent a variety of educational backgrounds, disciplines, and learning abilities. Seeing as writing is inherently interdisciplinary in its academic uses and forms, it is not a leap to assume that the teaching of writing must then implement interdisciplinary strategies. To begin utilizing interdisciplinary pedagogies, one must study and understand the connections writing has to other disciplines. Tracing the roots of how writing and literacy came about and came to be understood, is key to understanding how a classroom full of students with pronounced differences will simultaneously learn and engage with the concepts and ideas of writing. At their cores, the disciplines of writing and theater are connected in their primary goal: communicating an idea to an audience. I argue that a major component for helping students become more engaged in their learning of writing and literacy, is to use the foundations of theater inside the classroom. By creating and implementing focused acting activities addressing specific components of writing and the writing process, writing will be positioned as more accessible to the students and thus increase their engagement in the first-year composition classroom.

Abstract ID: 1
Abstract Title: Impact of Social Media
Student: Jenna Wydronkowski (jennajw@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Randy Lamkin (lamkin@uscb.edu)
Author List: Jenna Wydronkowski
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
This research helped us look further into the issue of the impact that social media has on an individual- whether it was positive or negative. In order to solve this debate on the impact social media has on individuals, I chose to present a 5 minute survey asking nearly 20 questions. These questions entailed the individual answering- gender, age, race, etc.; the media they use most; why they chose to use media; past experiences with social media; mood changes and etc. I noticed that majority of the individuals were positively impacted by social media. Most people believed that the good parts (reconnecting, pictures, etc) outweigh the bad aspects (isolation, comparison, etc) of social media. Some key findings, I noticed was that the younger the individual answering the questions, the more negative experiences they shared. I also found that people have had bad experiences yet a majority of them have over 3 social medias still, even after the bad experience. This research did not change the world by any means but it may have changed the way people view social media and start being less judgmental due to the negative impact comments have on individuals' self-worth.