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USCB Research and Scholarship Day

All Abstracts, sorted by program/department name (Total 74)

Abstract ID: 50
Abstract Title: Teaching Social Studies Through Rock and Roll
Student: London Walter (lwalter@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Beth Hammond (ebrinker@uscb.edu)
Author List: London I Walter
Program: Education
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Teaching social studies through Rock and Roll music is social studies. It crosses social barriers and cultures while bringing generations together. Music is the history of human life. Rock and Roll’s popularity in America grew in the late 1940s and 1950s with its immediate influences coming from blues, jazz, gospel, folk, bluegrass and slave spirituals. The original roots can be traced back centuries to African drum beats and Indo-European countries’ folk music making its way to America through immigration- thus perpetuating America’s melting pot. Rock and Roll and its immediate roots provide an examination of American history since it expresses the thoughts and feelings of people during a specific time period. It can be used to portray universal themes and affirm Man’s ultimate struggle between himself, others and nature. Rock and Roll is a widely untapped resource that teachers can use at any instructional level. It brings history to life, gives it context, and provides real-world meaning for students that they will connect to. TeachRock.org provides teachers with valid and multi-disciplinary lessons that include a variety of resources to teach history and all facets of social studies. These lessons bring music into the classroom while staying in context and following state and national educational standards. TeachRock.org helps teachers open the door of the world for students and influence any teacher’s ability to create their own Rock lessons that empower students to become critical thinkers. Utilizing Rock and Roll will allow teachers to truly engage students in learning.

Abstract ID: 9
Abstract Title: Implementing Theater in Writing Pedagogy: Promoting Learning Through Student Engagement
Student: Madeleine Wilkinson (mbw1@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Erin McCoy (emccoy@uscb.edu)
Author List: Madeleine Wilkinson
Program: English Theater and Liberal Studies
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
A first-year composition classroom presents many challenges to educators and students alike. Varying expectations and beliefs from professors in the discipline, their colleagues, and the students themselves create confusion regarding the information taught and the skills students should have mastered by the end of the course. The students in these classrooms represent a variety of educational backgrounds, disciplines, and learning abilities. Seeing as writing is inherently interdisciplinary in its academic uses and forms, it is not a leap to assume that the teaching of writing must then implement interdisciplinary strategies. To begin utilizing interdisciplinary pedagogies, one must study and understand the connections writing has to other disciplines. Tracing the roots of how writing and literacy came about and came to be understood, is key to understanding how a classroom full of students with pronounced differences will simultaneously learn and engage with the concepts and ideas of writing. At their cores, the disciplines of writing and theater are connected in their primary goal: communicating an idea to an audience. I argue that a major component for helping students become more engaged in their learning of writing and literacy, is to use the foundations of theater inside the classroom. By creating and implementing focused acting activities addressing specific components of writing and the writing process, writing will be positioned as more accessible to the students and thus increase their engagement in the first-year composition classroom.

Abstract ID: 11
Abstract Title: Environmental Injustices: Health Contaminants Soiling the African American Community
Student: Rachel Campbell (RIC@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Erin McCoy (emccoy@uscb.edu)
Author List: Rachel Campbell
Program: English Theater and Liberal Studies
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
The United States engages in a pattern of contaminating lower social class and minority communities with hazardous waste material. In recent years, studies have shown there is a higher risk for poor health among people of color living within impoverished communities as opposed to their wealthier counterparts. As a result of environmental contamination, many minority groups (this poster focuses specifically on African Americans) are more likely to be afflicted with respiratory, circulatory, and various other health complications from prolonged exposure to toxic waste. In this descriptive study, areas of hazardous waste-dumping sites in conjunction with the race and class status of nearby inhabitants and relevant legislative acts are reviewed in order to assess whether these phenomena compromise Environmental Justice and personal health. The objective of this study is to represent inequity in waste management for being potentially at fault for the emergence of illnesses in African American communities.

Abstract ID: 12
Abstract Title: Virtue Misplaced
Student: John Woods (jwwoods@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Ellen Malphrus (pemalphr@uscb.edu)
Author List: John Woods
Program: English Theater and Liberal Studies
Abstract Category: Oral Presentations

Abstract:
I would like to present a section of an original work that has been in the making for over a year and has been influenced by true events. It is a novel titled "Virtue Misplaced." The story traces the lives of two friends on their lifelong journey to find hope in a seemingly hopeless world. Some may classify it as a coming of age story, but to me, it's more than that, it is coming to faith story. Coming to the faith that there is more out there and more to life than monetary success.

Abstract ID: 58
Abstract Title: Intermediate Acting Class As-Yet-Untitled Memory Project
Student: Chale Kelley (ckelley@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Libby Ricardo (ricardoe@uscb.edu)
Author List: Victoria Bartholomew, Jeremiah Buoy, Rachel Campbell, Austin Farnsworth, Cecilie Foster, Brian Giles, Zaria Harris, Breelyn Holloman, Chale Kelley, Jonah Kinsman, Alexis Ledwell, Timothy Mansur, Rebecca Marze, Shannon McAleer, Lauren Nevis, Katherine O’Sullivan, Kenneth Qualls, Taylor Roberts, Katelyn Robinson, Davonte Saulsberry, Zach Seeler, Kevin Valdez, Robert Watford, Libby Ricardo
Program: English Theater and Liberal Studies
Abstract Category: Oral Presentations

Abstract:
This devised theater piece will explore memory loss and its effects on those afflicted, along with how the condition impacts caregivers and loved ones. The piece combines movement with personal narrative, and was developed by students in THEA B370. This is our first public performance of a devised student piece. The rehearsal process entailed improvisational movement exercises that slowly coalesced into choreographed series of movements. Students also shared their own personal experiences witnessing the effects of memory loss and used those narratives to create an original script. The entire piece resulted from a collaborative ensemble classroom where ideas were shared, critiqued, revised, and combined to create a wholly original work that seeks to take something painful and personal and transform it into an experience to be shared with an audience in the hopes of evoking emotional responses and provoking discourse about the lived experiences surrounding memory loss.

Abstract ID: 63
Abstract Title: Transparency
Student: Jaia Jones (jaia@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Ellen Malphrus (pemalphr@uscb.edu)
Author List: Jaia Jones
Program: English Theater and Liberal Studies
Abstract Category: Oral Presentations

Abstract:
The collection of work entitled "Transparency" serves one purpose--examination of self and the world that encapsulates us. It highlights and grapples with intricate realities of life and focuses on issues such as race, gender, religion, and identity. The goal for the collection is to unravel the obscurity of dense topics and craft a sense of empowerment and reconciliation.

Abstract ID: 68
Abstract Title: Lucid Dream
Student: Joshua Harris (jiharris@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Ellen Malphrus (pemalphr@uscb.edu)
Author List: Joshua Harris
Program: English Theater and Liberal Studies
Abstract Category: Oral Presentations

Abstract:
“Lucid Dream” is a story inspired by a historical document and covers a possible murder that affected multiple generations. What I'll be reading is a few pages from the beginning of the piece. This is an exploration of identity, family ties, and dealing with loss, which is told from multiple accounts and points of view.

Abstract ID: 69
Abstract Title: Our World through Her Eyes
Student: Cecelia Codling (ccodling@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Ellen Malphrus (pemalphr@uscb.edu)
Author List: Cecelia Codling
Program: English Theater and Liberal Studies
Abstract Category: Oral Presentations

Abstract:
Our World through Her Eyes is a collection of poetry that offers an attempt at understanding our world and the issues that consume it, from a contemporary feminist perspective. These pieces touch on topics including: self-love, religion, sex, dreaming and creating and, of course, multiple forms of equality. Although these poems were written as work towards my Senior Seminar portfolio, they are a response to the ever-changing world around us and a call for readers to: question, influence, and change our world for the better. Please keep in mind that creative work is meant to challenge us and some of this work may make some readers feel upset or uncomfortable, so please take into account that we may have opposing views, which is perfectly alright. Enjoy!

Abstract ID: 72
Abstract Title: The Pen
Student: Amanda Mazeika (amazeika@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Ellen Malphrus (pemalphr@uscb.edu)
Author List: Amanda Mazeika
Program: English Theater and Liberal Studies
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
The Pen is USCB’s Journal of Creative Writing and Art that publishes biannually. It features the original work of students that includes primarily fiction, poetry, and playwriting, as well as other creative arts, such as photography, painting, music, comicstrips, and non-fiction. You don’t have to be an English major, nor do you have to be enrolled in an English or art course to submit work! Email thepenuscb@gmail.com to submit or for more information!

Abstract ID: 73
Abstract Title: Reading Short Fiction
Student: Ryan Muth (muthr@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Ellen Malphrus (pemalphr@uscb.edu)
Author List: Ryan Christopher Muth
Program: English Theater and Liberal Studies
Abstract Category: Oral Presentations

Abstract:
It's absolutely incredible that it is somehow possible for such a short work of fiction to bring so much out of someone. Four pages, ten sentences, one sentence, a couple words. Short fiction holds a place near and dear to me, and today, for Student Research and Scholarship Day, I would love to share some of my work. Here I have two very short stories. One about an idealistic conman obsessed with the American dream, the other, a modern re-telling of an old fairy tale.

Abstract ID: 76
Abstract Title: Visibly Invisable
Student: Kristopher Gegier (kggeiger@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Ellen Malphrus (pemalphr@uscb.edu)
Author List: Kristopher Gegier
Program: English Theater and Liberal Studies
Abstract Category: Oral Presentations

Abstract:
I will be presenting a piece of poetry that has to do with the Opium Epidemic going on in the United States now.

Abstract ID: 24
Abstract Title: Breaking Down "The Great Chase"
Student: Nicholas Bell (nrbell@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Joanna Angell (angelle@uscb.edu)
Author List: Nicholas Bell
Program: Fine Arts
Abstract Category: Visual Arts

Abstract:
Animation is a multi-step process of images generated by the computer to create the illusion of movement. The industry was changed forever by the Disney/Pixar film, Toy Story (1995). Pixar broke ground by creating the first full length CGI movie. As much as I appreciate traditional animation, I’ll always gravitate towards computer-generated films. “The Great Chase” is a complex and rewarding project involving dozens of hours in development. The first step in producing an animation is to design concept sketches, characters and environments. I then take my designs and recreate them using the rendering software called Blender. Once the character models are completed they are rigged with a bone system called an armature. This allows the animator to manipulate the character as much as they want. A snowy forest environment makes perfect sense for an arctic fox and wolves to roam about. A series of planes and spheres shape the objects to represent what I make them to be. Complex mechanics, hours of hard work and a strict palm are what is to be expected. The final step for my project is to run my saved renders through Adobe Premiere, add sound, and export the final file as media.

Abstract ID: 26
Abstract Title: Down the Rabbit Hole
Student: Natalie Howden (nhowden@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Joanna Angell (angelle@uscb.edu)
Author List: Natalie Howden
Program: Fine Arts
Abstract Category: Visual Arts

Abstract:
Ceramics is one of the oldest forms of functional art with evidence of figurines and pottery dating as far back at 24,000 B.C. in the known timeline of history. Today ceramic forms are used in everything from electronics and superconductors to everyday dinnerware and artistic sculptures. I wish to share the process of how the most basic form of clay can be transformed into a representational work of art. I will show the process in the various stages of development and problem-solving to create a ceramic sculpture. The sculptural work I have created is a free-standing representative form based on the White Rabbit from the classic children’s book Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll. I will show each stage of design from modeling the clay, to finishing greenware and bisque to the final glaze firings. The information shared will show the depth of knowledge and skills needed to create artistic pieces for the world to appreciate in a three dimensional form.

Abstract ID: 38
Abstract Title: Playing with Fire
Student: Abigail Long (aclong@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Joanna Angell (angelle@uscb.edu)
Author List: Abigail Long
Program: Fine Arts
Abstract Category: Visual Arts

Abstract:
My work in ceramics this semester is dealing with making ceramic works using molds. The first part of my work is creating picture frames. The legs are from a press mold that I made of plaster. The style of the frames is based on the architecture from the French Rococo period as my minor is in French. The second part of my work is using found objects as press molds. I used license plates to create textures in slabs of clay which I then turned into trays, plates, cups, and crocs. The third and final part of my work is making clay molds. I took spoons and pressed them into blocks of clay which were then fired to roughly 1830 degrees F. I then pressed clay into the molds to make ceramic spoons. All of my final works are first bisque to about 1830 degrees F and then glazed to vitrification at cone 6 which is 2232 degrees F. I glazed my pieces in lead free Amaco potters choice glazes. Each piece is unique in the textures, colors, and patterns in the clay and glazes.

Abstract ID: 42
Abstract Title: The Things We've Been Told
Student: Micalah Locke (mrlocke@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Joanna Angell (angelle@uscb.edu)
Author List: Micalah Locke
Program: Fine Arts
Abstract Category: Visual Arts

Abstract:
The art of printmaking was established in China around 105 AD. Since then the art form has flourished and has spread all over the world. There are many different techniques of printmaking; monotypes, linocuts, etchings, colligraphs, lithography, silkscreen, etc. Printmaking is also a go-to medium for political art or making some kind of statement because of how easy it is to reproduce. In my art, I always want to make a statement. I want my work to be something larger than myself. For my senior exhibition, I decided to create a series called The Things We Have Been Told. This series is a collection of prints based I stories I collected from women in my life, including some of my own about the degrading things we have experienced whether it was verbal or physical. For this series, I chose three different printmaking techniques; linocut, silkscreen and solar plate. With two of these techniques; silkscreen and solar plate, I can use photographs in my prints because these techniques give me the ability to do so. By adding the photographic element in prints its creates a larger impact and also shows the combining of two separate focuses.

Abstract ID: 44
Abstract Title: The Nature of Photography
Student: Bradley Stanley (bstanley@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Joanna Angell (angelle@uscb.edu)
Author List: Bradley Stanley
Program: Fine Arts
Abstract Category: Visual Arts

Abstract:
We take the world around us for granted. We’ve grown accustomed to things we see daily, we walk the same sidewalks, we see the same trees, plants, animals, and the list goes on. We never really stop to think about just how much around us there is to see, or the things we may just miss. That is what I try to capture. I use nature as my canvas, and prefer the moments I capture to be, precisely that, in the moment. I want people to see the little things in life that we might pass by daily, if it’s small I want to make it big. Our world is a beautiful place, full of beautiful little moments, and I turn these little moments into a visual experience that make the viewer wonder how that was done, or be amazed at the parts of life we miss. Mother Nature is my model, I just get her close ups.

Abstract ID: 65
Abstract Title: Choice. Fate. An Idea
Student: Jeremiah Buoy (jbuoy@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Joanna Angell (angelle@uscb.edu)
Author List: Jeremiah Buoy
Program: Fine Arts
Abstract Category: Visual Arts

Abstract:
I often think about fate. Simultaneously, I often also think about choice. I think desperately of how while our lives are built by our decisions, everything in the universe has worked its whole existence to reach this specific point, at these specific moments. If everything is a choice, then all choices affect all others. Everything affects everything. The stars in the sky are in the positions they're in at only this time and at no time will they ever be the same. My art is inspired by the major arcana, the series of entities that proceed in the tarot cards of tradition. I produced these works with the use of ink wash, a calligraphy pen, and the occasional touch of gouache, an opaque watercolor paint. Designing these images was far easier to me then actually getting them done, as that took time with the addition of class artwork I needed to produce. I created this collection on the insistence of my mentor, once she'd seen a pair of drawings I'd done that summer. My deck, which is parody, features meanings and characterizations that I produced. It is inspired by some sense of devotion to my idea of how the universe, fate, and human beings work. The tarot cards are often considered to reveal your fate, and in truth this isn't so ridiculous. These cards are the cards that were pulled because that deck had been made and shaped by the choices and pulls of everyone before. Fate is all about choices. 

Abstract ID: 16
Abstract Title: Beaufort County’s Proclivity for Cultural/Heritage Tourism: An Analysis at the Heart of Hospitality
Student: Samantha Moore (sam19@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Nancy Hritz (nhritz@uscb.edu)
Author List: Moore, Samantha
Program: Hospitality Management
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
Cultural/heritage tourism continues to grow alongside unprecedented expansion in the hospitality industry. Culture and heritage tourism may be considered one of the most significant and fastest growing phenomena in the world (Herbert, 1995). Cultural/heritage sites are important for destinations as they draw repeat travelers (Azula, O’Leary, & Morrison, 1998). Beaufort County, SC is seeking to establish itself as a cultural/heritage destination. The area is ripe with historical attractions, and a dedicated cultural district. This study sought to describe both the current and potential cultural and heritage traveler to Beaufort County. Partnering with the Lowcountry and Resort Islands Tourism Research Institute (LRITI), 10,000 individuals were invited to participate in an email survey. A total of 804 fully completed surveys were collected, an 8% response rate. The results show 58.21% participants have visited the in the last 18 months, with only 14.65% first time visitors. Interestingly, 39.96% occurred in the first quarter: January (9.29%), February (16.63%), and March (14.04%). This may indicate despite the slow season, the Lowcountry’s culture and heritage is an understated commodity. A majority of the participants were aged 65-74, with an emerging age range of 45-54. Those visiting heritage and cultural attractions were 63.36%. The top locations were: Hunting Island, Edisto Beach, Parris Island and Gullah Museums. Only 33.33% of travelers agreed/strongly agreed they were not aware of the cultural/heritage attractions in the area, and 28.31% strongly disagreed/disagreed they were uninterested in visiting cultural/heritage facilities. Additionally, a majority of the participants (64.84%) neither agreed/disagreed there were better cultural/heritage attraction and/or facilities in surrounding destinations. This indicates a large market may be unreached and with strategic and proactive marketing, the Lowcountry can be branded as the premier cultural/heritage hub of the South.

Abstract ID: 49
Abstract Title: Pawsensitive Destinations
Student: Sarah Dawkins (sld3@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Nancy Hritz (nhritz@uscb.edu)
Author List: Sarah Dawkins, Nancy Hritz
Program: Hospitality Management
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
In today’s world, families do not just consist of two-legged individuals. The pet travel industry is already booming and destinations that become more welcoming will have competitive advantage over other travel destinations. From a descriptive point of view, all age generations agreed they would travel more with their pet if destinations were more pet friendly. Two teams of research assistants from LRITI conducted surveys at two different festivals in the southeastern U.S. Survey participants were asked if they ever travel with a pet as a filter question. If the response was in the affirmative, the participants were asked a series of questions regarding what they look for in a destination when traveling with their pets, such as dog parks, accommodations and pet friendly food and beverage businesses. Additionally, survey participants were asked demographic questions such as age, level of education, income level and where they were from. A total of 239 fully completed surveys were collected from both festivals. Descriptively, the typical survey participant was female (66.7%) rather than male (22.9%). The age generations were evenly dispersed with Baby Boomers (23.6%), Generation X with 38.3% of the sample, and 37.5% were Millennials. A predominant percentage of the sample resided in either South Carolina or Georgia at 76.8%. The survey participant tended to be an educated group with 54.4% having an earned Bachelor or Graduate degree. However, income levels varied widely with 12.7% earning less than $24,999 annually, 14.8% earning $50,000 to $74,999, and 14.3% reported earnings in the $75,000 to $99,999 and $100,000 to $149,999 income categories. The most common number of trips taken with a pet was 1-2 trips at 42.5% followed by 3-4 (28.8%).

Abstract ID: 4
Abstract Title: Hispanic Cultures and Businesses in the Lowcountry
Student: Geordy Del Cid (gdelcid@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Lukasz Pawelek (lpawelek@uscb.edu)
Author List: Geordy Del Cid
Program: Humanities
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
I am investigating how the agglomeration of Hispanics in the Lowcountry (1) has shaped the local businesses and how they (2) respond to the needs of Hispanic community as well as positively affect growth of the diverse Hispanic cultures. I gathered and analyzed 2000-2016 census data in order to depict the growth of Hispanic community in the Lowcountry. I anticipate that the growth of Hispanic population would correlate with the demand for Hispanic businesses, services and specific products. Additionally, I have conducted personal interviews with store-owners in order to understand the demand for the foreign produce and services, which are otherwise unavailable in general grocery stores. One of the benefits of Hispanic growth in the Lowcountry is the annual Latino Music Festival that not only cherishes the diversity of Hispanic cultures, but also reflects the increasing demand of Hispanic businesses and services within our area.

Abstract ID: 25
Abstract Title: Evolution of the English Language Bible
Student: Logan McFee (lmcfee@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Robert Landrum (rlandrum@uscb.edu)
Author List: Logan McFee
Program: Humanities
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
Throughout history, there have been countless versions of the Bible written in the English language. When Luther proposed his idea of Bibles in hands, he was opening the door for different interpretations and opinions of the Bible to be made. It was not long before the idea found its way to England, and by the mid-1500s, there were numerous English language Bibles. There have been English language Bibles written for all imaginable purposes: the lay population, official use, and even versions that were meant to be heard, not read. As the number of Bibles translated into the English language began to grow exponentially, it became clear that authors’ individual views heavily influenced the ways in which Scripture was presented. For example: the Bishop’s Bible, first printed in 1568, was a Bible directly authorized by the Church of England. As a result, the language used in the Bishop’s Bible is pompous and was meant to be read to a congregation during a church service. The haughty language would not have been a problem for the clergymen giving the sermon to read, but it would have been very laborious for the layman to comprehend. Therefore, Bibles like the Geneva Bible became important. The Geneva Bible was printed by Englishmen in exile in Calvin’s Geneva in 1560 and contained guides and aids to assist the layman reader in understanding Scripture. The Geneva Bible would later inspire some of the language of the King James Bible. This presentation will focus on some of the landmarks in the evolution within the sixteenth century English Bible and provide a short description of each one identified, such as the Geneva Bible and the Bishop’s Bible, Tyndale’s New Testament, The Matthew Bible, the Great Bible, the Lollard Bible, and the Wycliffe Bible.

Abstract ID: 35
Abstract Title: The Index
Student: Destiny Rose (Destinyr@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Robert Landrum (rlandrum@uscb.edu)
Author List: Destint Rose
Program: Humanities
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
For Research and Scholarship Day I would like to discuss "The Index". With the help of my poster and research I plan on explaining what "The Index" is, how it impacted both the Renaissance and the Italian period of reformation. I will also explain how this text helped spread and promote significant historical works to the people of its time. And lastly I will explain why this text is still a vital and significant part of our history.

Abstract ID: 37
Abstract Title: Analyzing the King James Bible & the Geneva Bible
Student: Shayra Valdez (savaldez@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Robert Landrum (rlandrum@uscb.edu)
Author List: Shayra Valdez
Program: Humanities
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Shayra Valdez Prof. Landrum History 310 Student Research Abstract Analyzing the King James Bible & the Geneva Bible My student research poster will explore the similarities and differences between the King James Bible (from the 16th Century) and the Geneva Bible (from the late 15th Century). These bibles are derived from similar materials--Greek, Latin, and Aramaic originals—but they were translated for different purposes. The King James Bible was commissioned for congregations to listen to. King James did not intend for his bible to be studied by individual believers (unlike the Geneva Bible). The Geneva Bible was published 51 years before the King James Bible. It was used by generations of English protestants, including William Shakespeare and Oliver Cromwell. The Geneva Bible was a major achievement for Calvinist Protestants. It was their first bible translated to English from the original languages. It was enormously popular amongst the public, and beloved among puritans for it marginalia and notes. James, however, believed that the marginal notes and footnotes were absurd. The bible also had Calvinistic views, which King James despised. King James commissioned a committee of 47 men to create a Bible with the sound of authority. Despite its archaic language, the King James (or “authorized version”) became an instant classic. Its verses had rhythm, its phrasing had grandeur, and its language was harmonious. It still exerts a profound influence on English Literature even after four centuries.

Abstract ID: 5
Abstract Title: Influence of Educational Intervention on Salad Bar Usage Among Middle-School Children
Student: Carla Woods (cwoods@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Swati DebRoy (sdebroy@uscb.edu)
Author List: Carla Woods, Shae Gantt, Valerie Meuhleman, Alan Warren
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
The purpose of this research project is to examine the association of certain socio-economic facts such as age, ethnicity, gender, and Body Mass Index, along with socio-economic status with preference to elect for a salad-bar lunch in middle-school children in Jasper County. With obesity in children being a health concern for the United States is on the rise, measures are required to be taken to avoid the issue in the future. With data procured from middle schools in Jasper County, data analysis is used to calculate the aggregate number of visits to a salad bar per week, per student and the total number of visits. From there, statistical analysis is used to calculate the strength of correlations between the times a student has visited a salad bar to the characteristics (physical and socio-economic) of the student, the analysis of variance to determine statistically significant difference in the usage of the salad bar, study the time-series pattern of number of visits to the salad bar per week when categorized based on the Body Mass Index status and implement multivariate regression analysis.

Abstract ID: 6
Abstract Title: Modeling meningitis
Student: Derek George (Dtgeorge@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Swati DebRoy (sdebroy@uscb.edu)
Author List: Derek George, Sierra Britt
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
Neisseria meningitidis (NM) is a bacterium which causes inflammation of the meninges, that is the membranes surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord. Infection of the meninges can lead to an invasive form of bacterial meningitis which can cause death in as little as 5 hours from time of infection. Neisseria meningitidis is part of the Active Bacterial Core (ABC) which initially develops in other parts of the body such as the sinuses, ear canal or throat and then spreads to the meninges. The contagious bacterium can spread quickly in communal environments such as dormitories on a college campus or retirement village. About 20% of survivors retain residual impacts of this infection such as brain damage and hearing loss. rnAmong the ABC’s are Haemophilus influenza, Streptococcus A, Streptococcus B, Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae with susceptibility varying among different age groups. Teens and young adults, such as college students are at risk for Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae while senior citizens carry an added risk for Haemophilus influenza B and Streptococcus B as well. This project aims to statistically analyze the susceptibility of the 5 ABCs developing into invasive bacterial meningitis caused by NM in different age groups.

Abstract ID: 7
Abstract Title: Childhood Obesity Trends in South Carolina’s Jasper County
Student: Shae Gantt (shaeg@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Swati DebRoy (sdebroy@uscb.edu)
Author List: Shae Gantt
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Obesity is a growing health hazard in the United States where more than one in three adults are obese. In South Carolina, for 10-17 year olds, the combined overweight and obesity (OO) rate as of 2016, is 32.9%, which is ranked 17th (out of 51 states). Since obese children lead to obese adults, childhood obesity needs to be addressed and curbed urgently. A child is considered overweight or obese if their body mass index (BMI) is at or above the 85th percentile. In this project, we will utilize mathematical models to analyze the BMI trend in 3rd, 5th and 8th graders in Jasper County School District from 2009 – 2015 and possibly predict future trends. The ordinary differential equations model obesity like an infectious disease, where weight change is associated with social interactions which influence lifestyle patterns. The children in normal weight category are considered susceptible who can get “infected” to become OO through natural causes or through interaction with other OO children. Likewise, the OO children can also lose weight to “recover” from obesity and eventually become susceptible again. To estimate the model parameters like rates of moving to OO classes and back, we utilize BMI data from Jasper County Middle school which was collected in relation to the NIH funded salad-bar study. We will further analyze the difference in these parameters (if significant), if this data is sub-categorized by race and gender. The knowledge generated from this project will ultimately assist authorities to develop effective and sustainable control measures to reverse the obesity epidemic in school children in the Lowcountry.

Abstract ID: 13
Abstract Title: User-Friendly Materials Science Database
Student: Jason Willis (jw31@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Yiming Ji (yimingji@uscb.edu)
Author List: Jason Willis, Andrew Wetmore, Dr. Yiming Ji
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
Current materials science database systems are complicated, difficult to understand and not user-friendly. There is not yet an intuitive database for users with limited knowledge of materials science. We surveyed and compared current database systems using common examples. We then evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of each database system and identified key features that would be extended in future systems. Furthermore, we designed a new user-friendly database system that would not only perform competitively to previous systems but would also be usable by general users; more importantly, the system will be open to all users without restrictions for registration process or subscription fees. This research is beneficial to both materials scientists and researchers from other fields. rn This work was supported primarily by the National Science Foundation EPSCoR Program under NSF Award # OIA-1655740. Any Opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Science Foundation.

Abstract ID: 17
Abstract Title: Mathematical model for an outbreak of West Nile Virus including control strategies and seasonality - an ongoing study
Student: Frank Cazales (fcazales@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Kasia Pawelek (kpawelek@uscb.edu)
Author List: Frank Cazales
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention a total of 47 states reported West Nile Virus activity in 2017. There have been 2,002 cases in humans with 67% developing a neuroinvasive disease. WNV is a vector-borne pathogen aimed for bird-mosquito-bird cycle throughout small to large regional areas, with humans, horses, and birds as incidental hosts. The Culex pipiens complex is the primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems and primary vectors of WNV in the continental United States. In this study, we designed a mathematical model with seasonality that considers natural factors impacting the Culex pipiens complex populations to introduce the seasonality. We expanded on our previous models to include bird and human populations as well as migration of mosquitoes, adulticides and catch basin treatments. The focus of this ongoing study is to design a mathematical model that takes into account various stages associated with the spread of the disease to model the outbreak and control of WNV. Our model predictions show the populations of mosquitoes throughout the seasons on the surface and underground, the impact of various control strategies, and a scenario of WNV outbreak. Our model predicts that treatment of catch basins and adulticides significantly lower the mosquito population and subsequently the risk of WNV outbreak.

Abstract ID: 18
Abstract Title: Overview of modeling the effects of behavior change, waning and imperfect vaccines on the spread of influenza
Student: Christopher Griffin (cg5@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Kasia Pawelek (kpawelek@uscb.edu)
Author List: Christopher Griffin, Sarah Tobin, Sara Del Valle, and Kasia A. Pawelek
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
Influenza is one of the major infectious diseases affecting humanity in the 21st century. The ability to predict the spread of the influenza virus using mathematical modeling allows us to examine various strategies that reduce the risk of infection in the population. There are various ways a person can lower a possibility of becoming infected through seasonal vaccinations, altering behavior by avoiding crowded places, washing hands, and following other CDC recommendations. Often the public is not aware that the vaccine efficacy is never 100% and that protection is acquired approximately two weeks following immunization. We present two models, one with a waning vaccine and another with an imperfect vaccine. Both of the models include behavior change and information obtained from modeling within-host dynamics of influenza infections. We created a system of ordinary differential equations using parameters associated with the infectivity of the influenza virus and the progression of the disease inside a human body. Our results of the waning vaccine model showed that the epidemic peak was significantly lowered when public vaccination was performed up to two months past the onset of an epidemic. In our model with an imperfect vaccine we showed that when more than 75% of the vaccinated population is exposed to the influenza virus due to the failure of the vaccine, the epidemiological peak is approximately the same than if the vaccine was not administered under certain model assumptions. The highest epidemiological peak resulted when the vaccine completely failed and vaccinated individuals thought that they were protected against the influenza virus. We showed that incorporating behavior change in addition to vaccination significantly lowers and delays the epidemiological peak giving more time to develop control and prevention strategies. These studies provide more information on the potential impact of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions during an influenza epidemic.

Abstract ID: 32
Abstract Title: Operation Orion Augmented Reality
Student: Jonathan Hilton (jbhilton@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Yiming Ji (yimingji@uscb.edu)
Author List: Andrew Wetmore, Carla Woods, Deep Patel, Zeyad Qatash, Darryl Dunham,Keila Calderon, Jonathan Hilton
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Innovation Application

Abstract:
Operation Orion Augmented Reality is an augmented reality tower defense game using an application on the user’s mobile device as a way to play it. The game will be played on a table or flat surface that is seen as the game world through the user’s mobile device. The user will scan a level icon to open that level icon’s specific level using their mobile device. The object of the game is to use and upgrade various towers to defeat enemy Artificial Intelligence, whose goal is to destroy the user’s colony. Whether the user’s colony is defeated or not is the deciding factor to winning that level or not. The result of this game will be a video gaming experience using a new and innovative technology, augmented reality.

Abstract ID: 34
Abstract Title: Chess & Conquer
Student: Robert Currall (rcurrall@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Yiming Ji (yimingji@uscb.edu)
Author List: Robert Currall; Jeremy Suarez
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Innovation Application

Abstract:
Chess & Conquer AbstractrnrnChess has been a game that has endured through the centuries. It started in the 6th century in India. The game became popular with other cultures and transcend national barriers. As each new culture played the game, the chess adapted to the new demographic. The biggest example is the addition of the knight. With each new iteration, chess evolved into something new. The twenty first century is no exception.rnrnThis variation of chess is designed to be an online multiplayer game. To allow for users to play each other online, a server is needed to manage all users and games, which is built using MySQL to store the information and PHP to handle incoming queries to the database. The client application which players will use to play the game is built using the Unity game engine. Users are able to join random matches as well challenge friends to a match.rnrnNow the pieces have the ability to gain skill levels like in a traditional role playing game (RPG). Each new skill level brings new movements and powers to each piece. Moreover, each player is given a set of Power Cards. The Power Cards stored on the database allows the user to modify the board and/or the players.

Abstract ID: 36
Abstract Title: Selection of a JavaScript Front-End Framework for the Redevelopment of SIMMER, a STEM Recitation App
Student: Alexis Miller (amm21@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Brian Canada (bcanada@uscb.edu)
Author List: Alexis Miller, Dr. Brian Canada
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Innovation Application

Abstract:
STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) students face a problem of memorization versus true understanding when studying, especially due to how critical it is to gain knowledge through repetition. Many assignments and textbooks only provide a limited number of static problems, which can lead to memorization. SIMMER (Synthetic + Interactive + Immersive = Mastery through Engagement + Reinforcement) is an interactive education application for genetics courses that has been in development at USCB since 2013 and attempts to tackle this issue. It uses randomization to create virtually unlimited practice problems, which allows students to study a wider variety of problems and promotes a deeper understanding of the topic. This should result in an easier transition to real-world scenarios, which are often imperfect and not as set-in-stone as what you would encounter in your standard college textbook. SIMMER is a fairly complex software application, and the first step has been determining the best language and framework to use. It was originally built using JavaScript, the de facto standard language for creating web applications. Some of the SIMMER user interface functionality was implemented using jQuery, which historically has been a popular JavaScript library due to its ease of implementation. However, its popularity is being supplanted by faster, more powerful front-end JavaScript frameworks such as React, Vue, and Angular. As part of a need to unify the SIMMER components into a single application, the first step of this project was to determine which of these three modern frameworks will yield the best results in the shortest amount of time. All three frameworks have their strengths, but after reviewing the specific traits of each, it was determined that React would be the best choice due to an optimal combination of performance, ease of use, and long-term technical support.

Abstract ID: 46
Abstract Title: Fecal Coliform Bacteria and Oysters
Student: Haley Sutcliffe (hks@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Swati DebRoy (sdebroy@uscb.edu)
Author List: Haley Sutcliffe, Ryan Reynolds, Alan Warren
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
An important problem in many urban environments is the contamination of surface waters. This contamination involves the fecal coliform bacteria. Fecal coliform bacteria is an anaerobic, non-sporing, rod shaped bacteria. It lives in the digestive tracks of warm blooded animals. This bacterium isn’t all harmful but some are pathogenic to humans. The pathogenic bacterium can cause diseases in humans. Some of these diseases include gastroenteritis, ear infections, typhoid, hepatitis A, and cholera. The way fecal coliform bacteria get into our creeks, rivers, lakes and oceans is by waste from livestock, waste from pets, wildlife, and humans by rain runoff and getting carried into storm drains. The presence of fecal coliform bacteria in an area’s waters might mean the presence of the type of bacteria that can cause diseases in humans. The presence of this bacteria can be tested by doing a fecal coliform test. DHEC has 25 shellfish management areas throughout coastal SC. These areas are monitored to provide data that will show the sanitary conditions of coastal shellfish and to make sure it is safe to consume local oysters. In this project we will be analyzing the data that was collected in the Okatie River area to see if there is any correlation between the salinity and the fecal coliform. DHEC measures the fecal coliform bacteria in surface water samples every month at countless stations throughout Beaufort County’s watersheds. Depending on the outcome of these samples, the collection of shellfish in the area may be put on hold until the fecal coliform levels are at the appropriate concentration. Fecal coliform concentrations in areas with high storm water flow tend to be high. This make the measurement of fecal coliform bacteria in the coastal area important because of the increasing population growth.

Abstract ID: 56
Abstract Title: Kala-azar’s Correlations with Structural Differences
Student: Daniella Borjas (dborjas@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Swati DebRoy (sdebroy@uscb.edu)
Author List: Daniella Borjas, Robert Lanier
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Kala-azar (Indian Visceral Leishmaniasis) is the second largest parasitic killer in the world and is among one of the most dangerous of the neglected tropical diseases. Bihar is the area of focus because it has the highest prevalence and mortality rates of Kala-azar. There are high levels of underreporting of Kala-azar because of the poverty-stricken areas it inhabits, and private health providers are dealing with these cases but are not required to report the cases they come across. The correlation of underreporting and the number of clinics in each county of Bihar, along with other factors including the roads and amount of electricity used in each county and recognizing a trend the number of cases in Kala-azar is the goal. This correlation will correspond with the poverty levels of each area and show the percentage of underreporting. Electricity will be measured per 1000 square kilometers along with roads. The number of cases will be measured per one million individuals. Five districts above and five districts below the Ganges River will be analyzed to report the factors that affect Kala-azar. Patna as the capital of Bihar is analyzed alone and compared to the data found from districts above and below the Ganges River. Through analysis, as expected, it was shown that Patna had a much higher number of roads and clinics.

Abstract ID: 61
Abstract Title: Video Games as Potential Mechanisms for Teaching Empathy
Student: Katherine Redmond (kredmond@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Brian Canada (bcanada@uscb.edu)
Author List: Katherine Redmond, Alexis Roberson, and Brian Canada, PhD
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Innovation Application

Abstract:
“Empathy grows as we learn.” –Alice Miller, Psychologist and Psychoanalyst For the final project in Dr. Canada’s Fall 2017 CSCI B145 course (Java Programming & Algorithm Design I), students were tasked with designing and creating a video game in which the player could choose from different character variations (such as race, gender, personality, income level, and many other attribute types) and experience a given life or work situation from the perspective of each character variation. One of the goals of the project was that the game could be used to help the player to develop a sense of empathy for different types of people, some of whom may be able to deal with a situation easily, while other types of people might find the same situation much more difficult or even impossible to deal with. Here, we present two games that explore this topic in very different ways. In The Motions, the player chooses from one of two characters who are differently equipped to cope with the stages of grief one encounters after receiving the diagnosis of a terminal illness such as cancer. In Nuns of the World, the player explores what it is like to be a devout, monastic woman from one of two religious faiths. Both games were developed using Greenfoot, a popular educational integrated development environment for learning Java and the principles of object-oriented programming through the creation of games and simulations.

Abstract ID: 75
Abstract Title: Characterizing and Predicting the Social Trends of a Local Community based on Online Social Networks
Student: Jeremy Suarez (suarez3@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Xiaomei Zhang (xiaomei@uscb.edu)
Author List: Jeremy Suarez, Dr. Xiaomei Zhang
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
The goal is to analyze, interpret and predict social trends based on data acquired from the online social network meetup.com. To achieve the goal, the objective is to accumulate data on the following: creation of social groups, event frequency, event attendance, and longevity of the groups. Once the data is collected, the data will be processed using data mining techniques to cluster popular social events and groups. The events and groups with the highest concentration represent the popular trend. Through the data mining of social trends, the local community will see the evolution in interest from the past 10 years to present day. Then with the model developed through the data mining process, predictions will be made on the evolution of social trends and the predictions will be evaluated to determine accuracy.

Abstract ID: 77
Abstract Title: Multi-Strawberry Stem Remover
Student: Jade Wickwire (wickwire@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Yiming Ji (yimingji@uscb.edu)
Author List: Jade Wickwire
Program: Mathematics and Computational Science
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
The purpose of my research, is to target the need in retail stores that are primary bulk sellers of food that have incorporated produce departments. In inventing a mechanical appliance able to remove multiple strawberry stems at once in the hope of enhancing productivity within these departments.

Abstract ID: 14
Abstract Title: Characterization of Human Corneal Epithelial Cells to be used in Research for Patients with Aniridia
Student: Mikala Kiefer (mkiefer@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Jena Chojnowksi (jchojnow@uscb.edu)
Author List: Kiefer, Mikala. Chojnowski, Jena
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
Auburn University, University of Georgia, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, and University of South Carolina Beaufort have a collaborative mission to find better treatment options for patients with aniridia. This will be done by collecting fibroblasts from patients with aniridia, inducing those cells into pluripotent stem cells(PSCs), introducing a good copy of the Pax6 gene into the induced PSCs, stimulating those modified cells to become corneal epithelial progenitor cells (CEPCs), and transplanting the CEPCs back into the patient’s eyes. This mission requires a subset task of practicing transfection of Pax6 and transplantation of CEPCs into rabbits. Since CEPCs from patients are limited, HCECs for this subset task will be purchased from the ATCC Company. To increase the success rate of this subset task, it is necessary for the purchased HCEC to be molecularly characterized and the percentage of CEPCs to be known in this population, which is my part of the bigger mission. Characterization of these cells is important to create a control for future experimentation and to use as a reference point for any subsequent characterizations. This project will use a cryopreserved HCEC line from the ATCC Company. Molecular and morphological characteristics of this cell line will determine the percentage of progenitor vs non-progenitor cells within this population. This is important because regeneration of the cornea requires a significant population of progenitor cells. I will use immunohistochemistry (IHC) to identify the presence or absence of specific antibodies known to be associated with progenitor or non-progenitor HCEC. No single protein can determine progenitor vs non-progenitor cells which is why a combination of proteins is necessary. PAX6 is expressed in both populations and therefore will be used as a control. Morphologically, I will be looking at shape and size as a biomarker for the presence of progenitor cells. My molecular and morphological characterization data will confirm there is a population of cells with the potential, through manipulation, to regenerate the cornea in the rabbits, and ultimately for patients with aniridia.

Abstract ID: 31
Abstract Title: Comparative Eye Morphology
Student: David White (dawhite@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Jena Chojnowksi (jchojnow@uscb.edu)
Author List: David White, Jena Chonowski PhD
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to highlight comparative eye morphologies among the fiddler crab (Uca pugnacious), squid (Lolliguncula brevis), and chicken (Gallus G.g domesticus). Using histological processes, the specimens were prepared and stained so their eye morphology could be viewed under magnification, and accurate, close up histological images could be used for comparative analyses. The organisms selected represent three different domains. The chicken is a domesticated reptile that has few predators. The fiddler crab is one of the most diverse organisms selected because it is an extreme edge species and has multiple predators from different environments. The fiddler crab’s eye was very interesting and an amazing find compared to the other two organisms selected. The squid is found in very deep reaches of the sea and has to use its eyes to avoid predators and search for food. Eye histological images were compared among all three organisms, specifically in the lens and corneal regions, and the fiddler crab had a different eye morphology for the lens while the other two were similar for the lens. In relation to the cornea, all three organisms had similar morphologies

Abstract ID: 33
Abstract Title: Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria Associated with Sharks of St. Helena and Port Royal Sound
Student: Daniel Conrad (dconrad@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Kim Ritchie (kritch@uscb.edu)
Author List: Daniel Conrad, Diego L. Gil‐Agudelo, Kim B. Ritchie
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
Elasmobranchs possess the ability to heal quickly from wounds; however, limited research has been done to explore the roll of beneficial bacterial associations in this healing process (Ritchie et al., 2017). Our main objective was to identify antibiotic producing bacteria associated with sharks as a measure of potential beneficial roles. Three Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier), two Bull Sharks (Carcharinus leucas), five Blacktip Sharks (Carcharinus limbatus) one Blacknose Shark- (Carcharhinus acronotus) and one Lemon Shark (Negaprion brevirostris) were captured by the use of drumlines and rod and reel in the St. Helena and Port Royal Sound areas off the coast of South Carolina. Bacteria were collected from various areas of the shark using sterile swabs and transferred into Zobell Marine Agar plates followed by incubation at 23 oC for up to 72 hours. Isolates were subcultured to purification and cryopreserved at -80oC. Libraries were UV radiated for two to three hours to kill bacteria and then overlaid with six human and four marine pathogenic bacteria to test antibiotic activity. Pathogens tested included Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio shiloii and Serratia marcescens. Plates were incubated overnight and zones of inhibition were compared and measured. In previous work, Ritchie et al. (2017) showed that up to 21% of cultured bacteria from skates and rays produce antibiotic activity against one or more test strain. In the present study, we show that up to 35% of cultured shark bacteria produce antibiotic activities against one or more test strain.

Abstract ID: 39
Abstract Title: Development of a Rapid DNA Technique to Differentiate Human and Animal Fecal Contamination
Student: Olivia Whipple (owhipple@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Kim Ritchie (kritch@uscb.edu)
Author List: Olivia Whipple, Natalie Alvarez and Kim B. Ritchie
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
Development of a Rapid DNA Technique to Differentiate Human and Animal Fecal Contamination Olivia Whipple, Natalie Alvarez and Kim B. Ritchie University of South Carolina, Beaufort Tracking the source(s) of fecal pollution in local waterways is critical for minimizing human health impacts and regulating water quality. Currently there are no real-time assays to differentiate the presence of fecal contamination in the Port Royal Sound area. We are developing a rapid hand-held DNA technique to 1) confirm the presence/absence of human fecal coliform bacteria and 2) differentiate between human and animal fecal contamination sources using animal-specific viral tracers. Unlike current methods which can take weeks to generate results, the rapid hand-held technique can generate results within an hour. Results will provide the basis for a more comprehensive study aimed at developing new tools for the management of the area. We are working with the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) and the City of Bluffton for this pilot project. Development of this technique may also be optimized for application to other systems, such as pathogen presence and persistence in local waters, pathogen presence in aquaculture and detection of human pathogens in oyster fisheries.

Abstract ID: 40
Abstract Title: Cell Morphology of Mouse Embryo
Student: Christina Adams (cea7@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Jena Chojnowksi (jchojnow@uscb.edu)
Author List: Christina E. Adams and J.L. Chojnowski
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
Mice are used in a lot of research because they closely resemble humans in their genetic, biological, and behavioral aspects. They can be used to replicate human conditions within them in order to find treatments or cures to illnesses. By observing and learning about the cell morphology of a mouse, this can help an individual gain knowledge about what cells look like within our bodies and how future development with mice can lead to groundbreaking discoveries, but one must first be able to look within a sample and be able to find similarities and differences between the organism and human beings. The focus of this work is to get a generalized understanding of cells and be able to apply the knowledge of differentiating cells in order to locate and learn where these processes can take place. The samples used were mouse embryo samples at 10.5 days old that had been embedded in wax. In order to investigate the cell types, a microtome had to be used to give thin enough sections to place onto slides and were then stained using a hematoxylin and eosin stain so that the nucleus and cytoplasm could be differentiated from one another. In conclusion, mitosis of a cell was observed at different stages throughout developing embryos and also different cell types within the brain and eye regions. This has resulted in a better understanding of cells and the different types of cells, which can now be applied to future research stemming from this opportunity.

Abstract ID: 47
Abstract Title: Efficient Traffic
Student: Philip Peter (ppeter@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Debra Wallace (dwallace@uscb.edu)
Author List: Philip Peter
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Innovation Application

Abstract:
In the last decade, Beaufort County’s resident population has surged 24.3%. Visitors, tourists, part-time residents, and commuters increase the County population on an average day by an additional 34%. In July, Hilton Head alone attracts over 40,000 visitors a day. Traffic congestion on Beaufort County’s roadways is perhaps the most noticeable and tangible effect of Beaufort County’s surge in growth and popularity. Improving infrastructure to meet demand, planned revisions to the traffic light system along the US-278 corridor will be the first in over 10 years. To quantify the data, Beaufort County has undertaken detailed study of traffic flow rates and vehicle volumes along the intersections of US-278 from Buckingham Drive to Hampton Parkway. Currently there is a high rate of congestion along US-278 during peak traffic periods Monday through Friday between 7:00-9:00, 11:00-13:00, and 15:00-17:00. This congestion causes travel delays and an increased probability of accidents, construction-related impacts, and other altercations. Working with Beaufort County, I have collected data from every intersection during the peak periods. My data quantify a change in traffic patterns along US-278 compared to historical numbers. In conjunction with an outside consultant, we are incorporating this data into an analytical model to optimize traffic flow and to assess the impacts of recent roadway improvements such as the extension of Bluffton Parkway and the flyover connecting the Parkway to the foot of the Hilton Head Bridge. Fine tuning the traffic light durations and timing at each intersection with our model results will improve the performance of the intersection, optimize traffic flow for maximum efficiency, and effectuate capacity of 1,900 cars per lane, per hour. The RBC Heritage Tournament will test the improved system’s ability to meet increased demand. For Beaufort county residents and visitors this effort means faster commutes and fewer frustrations.

Abstract ID: 48
Abstract Title: Fish Diversity, Abundance, and Growth Patterns in Tidal Pools and Creeks of the May River Estuary, SC
Student: Thomas Morgenstern (morgent@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Eric Montie (emontie@uscb.edu)
Author List: Thomas Morgenstern, Bradshaw McKinney, Shaneel Bivek, Austin Roller, Jamileh Soueidan, Eva May, Ashlee Seder, Caleb Shedd, Claire Mueller, Alyssa Marian, Agnieszka Monczak, Bill Roumillat, Erin Levesque, Steve Borgianini, Eric W. Montie
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
Estuaries serve as nursery habitat for many species of fish. Estuaries are composed of microhabitats including oyster reefs, salt marsh grass, soft bottom habitats, and sand flats. In estuaries of the Southeast, the tidal range is intense and as the tide goes out, this creates intertidal pools and creeks. These microhabitats serve as a refuge for many invertebrate and fish species. The goal of this study was to investigate the diversity, abundance, and growth patterns of fish that inhabit intertidal pools, creeks, and shorelines in the May River Estuary, South Carolina. A total of 44 sites were randomly selected and sampled bi-monthly using a haul seine around the low tide. A total number of 6 invertebrate species were collected that spanned 6 families. A total number of 52 fish species were collected that spanned 30 families. The most abundant species were spot (Leiostomus xanthurus), bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli), mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) silver perch (Bairdiella chrysoura), Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia), and tidewater mojarra (Eucinostimus harengulus). Many of the observed species in the haul seines were young-of-the-year (YOY) fish, indicating that the May River estuary serves as nursery habitat for many important fish species. Different YOY were more abundant at specific times of the year following the spawning timelines for that species.

Abstract ID: 51
Abstract Title: Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) Investigation of Monosaccharide Derivatives: Discovery of Biologically Active and Competitive Trypanosoma cruzi Glucokinase Inhibitors
Student: Scott Green (scottbg@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Edward D`Antonio (edantonio@uscb.edu)
Author List: Scott Green, James Lanier, Edward D'Antonio
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
There are 6 – 7 million people worldwide affected by Chagas’ disease, a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Such individuals principally reside in Latin American countries, spanning from Mexico to Argentina, where medical treatment is sparse and outdated. The antichagasic drugs currently available include only benznidazole and nifurtimox and were developed over 35 years ago. Side effects include peripheral neuropathy, vomiting, nausea, and insomnia. Recently, benznidazole was approved for use in the United States but it was not previously accepted due to its poor set of side effects. There is an urgent need to develop alternative drugs to combat this disease. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that T. cruzi glucokinase (TcGlcK) could be significantly inhibited with glucosamine-analogue inhibitors and the most potent of the series was carboxybenzyl glucosamine (CBZ-GlcN). TcGlcK is proposed to be an essential drug-target of the protozoan parasite and is situated at the first step of glycolysis, where glucose becomes phosphorylated at the expense of ATP. By inhibiting TcGlcK, the flux of glycolysis becomes diminished and leads to cellular apoptosis. The focus of the SAR investigation was to develop twenty-one monosaccharide derivatives around the design of CBZ-GlcN. As such, these compounds were synthesized, purified, and fully characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and HRMS. The synthesis of each compound involved a one-step hydrolysis reaction of seven different acyl chloride derivatives with D-glucosamine, D-mannosamine, and D-galactosamine. These twenty-one compounds were screened against TcGlcK to assess enzyme inhibition and they were further screened against the T. cruzi (Tulahuen strain) infective form (trypomastigote and amastigote life stages).

Abstract ID: 53
Abstract Title: Fine-scale Spatial Mapping of Biological Sounds in the May River Estuary
Student: Ashlee Seder (aseder@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Eric Montie (emontie@uscb.edu)
Author List: Ashlee Seder, Bradshaw McKinney, Agnieszka Monczak, Claire Mueller, Jamileh Soueidan, Alyssa Marian, Stephen Borgianini, Eric W. Montie
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
The study of soundscapes is a fairly new scientific field that uses sound to characterize ecosystems. This can be a helpful tool for tracking species, estimating population sizes, monitoring behavior, and studying the overall quality of habitats. In estuaries, this tool is especially helpful since the underwater environment cannot be studied easily by sight due to the lack of visibility of this highly productive ecosystem. Estuarine soundscapes are acoustically rich, and sound patterns have been an understudied element. Therefore, the goal of this project was to map the soundscape of the May River. A passive acoustic recorder (DSG-Ocean) was towed by boat and recorded sound continuously along a specific course. From the acoustic data collected, sound pressure levels (SPLs) of high frequency (7000 Hz-39000 Hz) and low frequency (50 Hz-1200 Hz) bandwidths were determined every 1 sec and mapped to a specific GPS location. The data was then used to create heat maps using ArcGIS. The acoustic data collected and the heat maps that were produced revealed that the soundscape of the May River was complex and exhibited great spatial heterogeneity. Distinct spatial hotspots of low frequency sound (i.e., indicative of spotted seatrout chorusing) and high frequency sound (i.e., indicative of snapping shrimp acoustic activity) were observed. In the future, the goal is to collaborate with SCDNR to map the shoreline habitat of the May River. The purpose of this is to determine if there is a correlation between shoreline structure (e.g., oyster reefs and soft bottom) and higher SPLs of high and low frequency. Acoustic cues may be used by marine organisms for settlement and recruitment and thus spatial heterogeneity in sound levels may indicate suitable habitat. The soundscape data collected could potentially provide new tools to help understand the health of estuaries by tracking biological sounds over time and space.

Abstract ID: 54
Abstract Title: Synthesis, Purification, and Characterization of Monosaccharide Inhibitors for Trypanosoma cruzi Hexokinase
Student: Robert Lanier (Lanierr@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Edward D`Antonio (edantonio@uscb.edu)
Author List: Robert Lanier, Scott Green, Hanna Gracz, Edward L. D'Antonio
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
The human pathogenic protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, being the cause of Chagas’ disease, is a neglected tropical disease. In Latin America, there are currently 6-7 million people affected by Chagas’ disease, also killing over ten thousand people each year. T. cruzi cells possess a glycolytic enzyme, hexokinase (TcHxK), that is essential to its survival. Due to the broad substrate range of TcHxK, various monosaccharides can be phosphorylated at appreciable rates. This study focuses on the synthesis and purification of potential inhibitors of TcHxK in order to discover an inhibitor that is effective at killing T. cruzi cells. To identify a class of monosaccharide-based inhibitors that are potent and selective with respect to the human homologue, a focus was centered on the structure-activity relationship from a previously confirmed inhibitor for T. cruzi glucokinase. Three monosaccharides were explored that included: D-glucosamine, D-mannosamine, and D-galactosamine using 7 acyl chloride derivatives to tether on having an amide bond. Each inhibitor was purified through a semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography instrument, purifying and collecting a single compound. These compounds were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The compounds were confirmed to be the desired products from the syntheses.

Abstract ID: 60
Abstract Title: Comparative Analysis of Avian and Mammalian Embryonic Heart Development
Student: Kathryn O`Neill (kmoneill@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Jena Chojnowksi (jchojnow@uscb.edu)
Author List: Kathryn M. O'Neill, Jason E. Cotton, Jena Chojnowski
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Innovation Application

Abstract:
Current research uses the mouse embryo as a model organism for human heart diseases, but with this research the chicken embryo could be an alternative model due to the better accessibility and size of the organism. A comparative analysis of avian and mammalian embryo heart development at the same stage of development will show that the two organisms have similar development of the heart at this early stage, and thus showing that chickens could be an alternative, less expensive model for human heart diseases. Using a histological approach, we compared the heart development of the mouse and the chicken at the same stage of development. Our results show that the chicken embryo does develop the heart the same as the mouse embryo. This also shows that the chicken can be used as an alternative model for the study of human heart diseases.

Abstract ID: 74
Abstract Title: Pollinator-plant Specialization of Hummingbirds along an Elevation Gradient
Student: Rebecca Malkewicz (malkewir@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Stephen Borgianini (borgians@uscb.edu)
Author List: Rebecca A Malkewicz
Program: Natural Sciences
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
As the world’s largest tropical rainforest, the Amazon is well-advertised as needing protection from deforestation. However, South America harbors another great forest – unheard of by most people – which is the Pacific Ecuadorian Forest in the Tumbes-Chocó-Magdalena Global Biodiversity Hotspot. Whereas the Amazon has lost approximately 17% of its forest, this ecosystem in Ecuador has lost 98%. Since the foundation of the Jama-Coaque Reserve in 2007, the remaining 2% is on the mend, with 1,400 acres of tropical moist forest and premontane cloud forest under protection. In an attempt to help further the reserve’s restoration efforts, this study observes the effects elevation has on the specialization of the forest’s essential pollinator-plant species, specifically hummingbird plants. Hummingbirds have highly mutualistic relationships with the plants they feed on – the hummingbird acting as the pollinator and the plant providing the resources it needs to survive. So dependent are they on one another that the floral morphology of many hummingbird plants will evolve to compliment that of the birds’ bill. A generalist hummingbird species will have a shorter and straighter bill, allowing it to feed on a variety of plants, but a specialized hummingbird normally has a beak designed to match that of a particular plant. In this way, specialist species are limited to select resources, and are especially fragile after duress from severe abiotic conditions. Previous studies suggest that elevation gradients are beneficial for modeling climate change, and other unpredictable conditions. This experiment examines how the specialization of hummingbird plants changes along the elevation gradient of the coastal range. Hopefully, the study will aid in determining how the species of the Jama-coaque reserve will be affected if the ecosystem is struck with harsh conditions.

Abstract ID: 15
Abstract Title: Hospital-Acquired Infections: CLABSI & CAUTI
Student: Ireanna Morrall (morralli@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Cetina Tolbert & Ireanna Morrall
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Hospital acquired infections (HAI) affect thousands of people within the United States and result in an annual increase of billions of dollars associated with healthcare costs. Infections are a recognized complication of indwelling devices such as central line associated infections (CLABSI) and urinary catheter associated infections (CAUTI) within the hospital setting. Due to the preventability of HAI, the aim is to eliminate or significantly reduce the number of HAI. Examining the potential to eliminate HAI using two prototypes: CLABSI and CAUTI, peer reviewed literature was analyzed dating from 2013 to present using the search terms hospital acquired infections, central line associated infections, catheter associated infections, and preventing hospital acquired infections. CLABSI occurs when there is a break in sterile procedure during the insertion of a catheter into a large vein in the patient’s neck, chest, or groin area, which allows bacteria to enter the bloodstream. Trends in CLABSI drastically decreased in all areas of the hospital by approximately 50% from 2008 through 2016. An estimated 75% of urinary tract infections in the hospital were associated with urinary catheters, and the main contributing factor to urinary tract infections was prolonged use of urinary catheters. Through the analysis of the national standardized infection ratios from 2009 through 2016, there was an estimated 50% decline in CAUTI cases in all locations of the hospital. Implications of the review included preventive techniques per the development of universal guidelines that have aided in decreasing the incidence and prevalence of most HAI.

Abstract ID: 19
Abstract Title: Influenza: Virus, Treatment, and Prevention
Student: Michele Guscio (michelee@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Michele Guscio
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Influenza is a common seasonal illness which is very often misunderstood and mistaken for many other illnesses. The purpose of this project was to present the facts about influenza, its spread, vaccinations against it, and treatment in order to dispel the many myths and the misinformation that surrounds this viral illness. A review of evidence-based research and well-vetted websites such as South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SC DHEC) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was conducted to obtain factual information regarding influenza and its spread, available treatments, and prevention. Because influenza is particularly devastating and potentially lethal to vulnerable populations, better education regarding the illness is crucial in the effort to reduce the spread and impact of the illness. The conclusion of this project is that education of the general public regarding influenza is critical in the pursuit of slowing the spread of influenza each year and reducing the annual impact of the illness.

Abstract ID: 21
Abstract Title: Mandated Staffing Ratios
Student: Karri Bogart (karri@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Karri Bogart, Elizabeth Douglas
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Abstract The profession of nursing was established to provide care for the sick and injured. Emphasis is placed on patient trust and safety but often nursing resources are inadequate due to lack of staffing that nurses are unable to perform their duties effectively. This promotes an atmosphere of distrust in our patients, unsafe work environments, and leads to employee dissatisfaction. Mandated staffing ratios are currently being considered as a federal resolution to this issue and legislation has been passed in 15 states along with the District of Columbia to address nurse staffing. Seven states require hospitals to have committees responsible for staffing, five states require mandatory public reporting, but California is the only state that requires staffing ratios to be maintained at all times. The purpose of this research study is to explore the effectiveness of staffing ratios by evaluating data from peer-reviewed articles dated 2013 to present as well as current state and federal legislation guidelines and the American Nurses Association position paper regarding staffing. Results of these studies indicate a strong correlation between optimum staffing and reduced patient mortality, yet other factors such as staff certification and ancillary staff may also contribute to this correlation. There is strong evidence that supports an increase in nurse satisfaction and retention rates when staffing ratios are implemented. Public reporting would create a transparency and organizational accountability. Communities differ in the population they serve just as nursing units differ; therefore,floor nurse input needs to be considered when developing staffing plans as well as the acuity of the patient population and the skills required to care for them. This will allow policies to be tailored to the population they serve and allow for easier implementation.

Abstract ID: 23
Abstract Title: Arrhythmia Alliance and USCB’s Health and Wellness Fair: Benefits of Building Community
Student: Sharonica Gavin (gavins@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Diana Reindl (dreindl@uscb.edu)
Author List: Sharonica Gavin, Diana Reindl
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
Background:rnResearch shows communities grow when there is collaboration with and commitment to that community (Rowitz, 2014). Arrhythmia Alliance and USCB each have this commitment. Moreover, health and wellness fairs have the potential to provide benefits to community members and promote community growth. The purpose of Arrhythmia Alliance partnering with USCB’s Health & Wellness Fair was to increase heart arrhythmia awareness through prevention, education, demonstration, and resources. rnMethods:rnTo increase heart arrhythmia awareness pulse checks were completed. Pulse checks were conducted using an AliveCor Kardia device (FDA approved), which collected a one lead EKG and heart rate in 30 seconds. Furthermore, Arrhythmia Alliance partnered with USCB to add an additional three vendors and support to the 6th Annual Health and Wellness Fair.rnResults:rnIn total, 92 pulse checks were conducted. A total of 65 were classified as normal, 25 were documented as unclassified and 2 Atrial Fibrillation detections. Arrhythmia Alliance assisted with strengthening relationships with the Bluffton Township Fire District. Two Sudden Cardiac Arrest presentations were conducted. Moreover, an Atrial Fibrillation seminar was presented by a local cardiologist with attendance including both USCB students and the public. rnConclusions:rnThe collaboration between Arrhythmia Alliance and USCB was beneficial. Arrhythmia Alliance was able to increase awareness of heart arrhythmias as well as build strong community relations. Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia; however, many are unaware of the condition and are currently undiagnosed. A successful community building relationship took place at the Health and Wellness Fair, with both organizations coming together with the common interest of increasing health awareness.

Abstract ID: 27
Abstract Title: Yoga With Dogs
Student: Kaelyn Tatro (ktatro@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Diana Reindl (dreindl@uscb.edu)
Author List: Bailey Craven and Kaelyn Tatro
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Yoga with Dogs Yoga with Dogs is an intervention that aimed to reduce stress among college students at the University of South Carolina Beaufort (USCB). We noticed that many students report feeling stressed about numerous issues related to college life, but they do not have the knowledge or skills to reduce or eliminate this stress. During the course of this intervention, we completed the following activities: 1) a pre-evaluation survey to determine important areas of focus; 2) a Yoga with Dogs intervention where we facilitated a yoga session using dogs as companions to help our peers reduce stress; 3) an evaluation of the yoga intervention that provided feedback on these activities; and 4) a post-evaluation survey to measure the impact of the intervention. We found that the majority of college students at USCB are stressed about schoolwork, and that this stress persists until the end of the semester. However, many of our peers enjoyed being around dogs and said that it reduced their feelings of stress during the intervention. We found the Yoga With Dogs intervention to be a healthy, effective way to reduce stress among USCB students. During the course of the intervention, we found that students actually felt a sense of relief. The yoga was a good way to exercise and practice breathing, while the dogs made it enjoyable and entertaining. This intervention was successful, and we recommend incorporating this and similar activities throughout the school year to provide ongoing stress reduction strategies for students at USCB.

Abstract ID: 29
Abstract Title: Your Healthy Heart: A Health Promotion community- based intervention, with the YMCA of Beaufort and Beaufort High School to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake.
Student: Jayln Washington (Jayln@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Diana Reindl (dreindl@uscb.edu)
Author List: Jayln Washington, Diana Reindl, and Caral Raines
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Hypothesis Driven

Abstract:
Background:rnThere are a variety of innovative and demonstrated ways to make the healthy choice the easy choice. This student-led intervention was developed in partnership with the American Heart Association with the intent to increase influence nutritional intake. Specifically, the purpose of this project was to increase fruit and vegetable intake the 4-18 year olds at Beaufort High School and the YMCA of Beaufort.rnrnMethods:rnTwo professionally designed 11 x 17 flyers where created to highlight and emphasize eating fruits and vegetables in Beaufort High School and the YMCA of Beaufort. Each flyer contained a minimum of 6 fruits and vegetables and descriptions highlighting the benefits of each item for three weeks. A time series, pre and post test was conducted at both locations to determine if an increase in fruit and vegetable intake occurred. rnrnResults: rnThere are 1,365 participants at Beaufort High School and 143 participants at the YMCA. Beaufort High pretest results showed an average fruit and vegetable intake of 36%. During implementation, week one results increased to 46% of Beaufort High students eating fruits and vegetables. An additional increase from 52% to 59% occurred during weeks two and three, respectively. By the end of the YMCA intervention, 100% of 4-13 year olds, had eaten a fruit or vegetable. This was an increase from only 20% of the participants eating a fruit or vegetable pre-intervention. rnrnConclusion:rnOverall, the participants found that the display of healthier options encouraged them to make healthier choices. Morever, participants found this program both beneficial and effortless. Program facilitators and participants were satisfied with the measured outcomes of this intervention and program participants were able to retain useful information that can be applied to their everyday lives.

Abstract ID: 30
Abstract Title: USCB’s Student-led Health & Wellness Fair: Increasing Awareness of Local Health Services
Student: Deystinee Lightner (lightned@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Diana Reindl (dreindl@uscb.edu)
Author List: Deystinee Lightner, Diana Reindl
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Introduction: Student driven health and wellness fairs can assist in building connections with neighboring health care facilities and services. The purpose of USCB’s 2018, 6th annual health and wellness fair (HWF) was to increase health consciousness through education and health promotion. The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the degree to which the HWF was beneficial to attendees. Methods: The 2018 6th Annual HWF was co-planned by four USCB entities including: the Health Promotion Club (HPC), Student Nursing Association (SNA), Campus Recreation and Student Life. Invitations were sent to over 60 local health organizations to serve as vendors for the event. Other methods of invitation included in-person and over the phone requests. The HPC assessed participant benefits using an electronic-based survey through Survey Monkey. Results: A total of 34 vendors participated in the HWF. There were 121 respondents to the electronic-based survey among those who participated. The majority of respondents were female (82%), students (82%), aged 18-25 (77%). A strong majority (63%) “strongly agreed” that that the HWF taught them about new local resources they could use to better their health, that it was beneficial (60%), and encouraged them toward a healthier lifestyle (57%). Conclusion; Most participants documented benefits from attending the HWF. Learning of new, local health resources was a major benefit to students attending. Building connections between vendors and student participants to leverage opportunities outside of the HWF were created. These connections and continued partnerships outside the HWF represent useful data to track in the future.

Abstract ID: 57
Abstract Title: The Role of the SANE
Student: Sealy Crider (Scrider@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Sealy Crider
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Every 98 seconds an American is sexually assaulted. These assaults can occur anywhere but are often reported to health care providers by victims who become patients of the American health care system. To understand the role of the registered nurse and more specifically the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) in sexual assault cases a review of available literature was conducted. It was found that SANE certified nurses are experts in holistic care for all patients that are the victims of sexual assault or sexual violence regardless of gender, gender identity, race, or sexuality. SANEs are carefully educated and trained to provide comprehensive care from the initial point of contact through the examination, as well as the legal process. SANEs are often limited resources employed by various agencies such as health departments, public hospitals, and law enforcement agencies, and not-for-profit agencies. There are approximately 400 SANE programs in the entire United States and only 10 in Canada. This equates to roughly 8 SANE programs in each state in the US. Program size can vary anywhere from one or two SANEs to ten or 12 SANEs. As a result of the limited access to SANEs most sexual violence patients are examined in emergency departments by providers minimally trained in forensic evidence collection. Studies have shown public awareness of SANE programs and accessibility has increased the rate of sexual assault reporting and successful prosecution. Increasing sexual assault awareness, educating vulnerable populations and the general public on SANEs, and improving SANE accessibility through public funding and grants has the potential to improve patient outcomes, increase successful prosecution, reduce post-assault emotional and psychosocial trauma in victims, and change the social stigmas directed towards sexual assault victims.

Abstract ID: 62
Abstract Title: Legislating the BSN Degree in Nursing; Sound Decision or Regulatory Overreach?
Student: Nancy Cosgrove (cosgrovn@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Nancy Cosgrove
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
This issue-based paper will focus on the long-standing entry-into-practice debate dating to the 1940's. There are two levels of preparation for registered nurses. The associate degree in nursing (ADN) requires two years of study focusing on clinical skills, while the baccalaureate degree in nursing (BSN) requires four years of study that includes research and leadership. With an aging and diverse population, many with complex medical issues, evidence supports the need for nurses with a higher level of education beyond the ADN. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends 80% of the nursing workforce hold a BSN degree by 2020. In 2017, New York passed legislation, entitled “BSN in 10” requiring nurses to earn their BSN degree within ten years of initial licensure or forfeit their license altogether. This paper will discuss the challenges of the New York requirement and examine whether this legislation is a sound decision or regulatory overreach. Methods used to answer this question involved reviewing literature published about the differences in an associate degree and bachelor's degree in nursing and published studies about patient outcome differences depending on the education level of nurses. Literature was further searched to gain information on the background of the ADN-BSN debate and to learn the challenges to achieving the Institute of Medicine's recommendation. Literature showed patient outcomes improved with higher degreed nurses; BSN and higher degree nurses are better equipped to handle an aging and diverse population, and that other states are following New York's lead. In conclusion, requiring a BSN for entry-level nursing may be out of reach for many nurses, yet legislating a BSN degree within ten years of licensure shows promise and supports the education and knowledge needed for today's healthcare environment.

Abstract ID: 64
Abstract Title: Midwifery: Current Trends and Issues
Student: Kelly Schnaubelt (Schnaube@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Amonae Russel, Kelly Schnaubelt
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Midwifery as a profession is often criticized about its efficacy and potency in health care. A stigma currently exists in many Americans regarding the midwifery profession’s safety and scope of practice in and out of the hospital setting. Although the number of midwife-assisted in-home and in-hospital births has steadily risen over the past decade, the profession’s stigma is exacerbated by many states' legislation restricting autonomy. This paper takes a generalized approach to discuss Midwifery’s current trends and challenges regarding clinical practice, such as restrictive legislation and prescriptive authority, and barriers to education. Discussing all current challenges is not within the scope of this paper, however challenges such as business related barriers, third party reimbursement, homebirth legislation, and educational preceptor experiences are examined. Solutions and potential results regarding each challenge are discussed based on analysis of peer-reviewed literature and evidence-based research. Removing barriers to the practice and education of Midwives and changing the culture surrounding birth will transform the profession. In turn, this transformation is expected to result in betterment of the preparation of midwifery students, daily practice of current Midwives, and experiences of the women being served.

Abstract ID: 66
Abstract Title: Pysical Restraint Alternatives
Student: Pedro Mendoza (pmendoza@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Paula Hooks-Clements, Pedro Mendoza
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
The use of physical restraints in health care is not a new concept. Physical restraints have been used for centuries especially in the care of patients with psychiatric disorders. However, the use of restraints has now become common practice in all settings,including critical care, geriatric care and acute care. This common place practice has led to the development of an international movement to limit or end the use of restraints as evidenced by the standards set by such accrediting agencies as the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Services and the Joint Commission. After a literature search regarding the topic of physical restraints, it was discovered that studies of late have investigated the effectiveness and dangers associated with physical restraint usage, the patient and nurse views toward the usage of physical restraints,and alternatives to physical restraints. Additionally,changes to practice are suggested in many studies. Some views speak out against restraint usage based on the limits placed on patient’s autonomy while others claim that physical restraints do not prevent harm to the patient as previously believed. These regulations are specific for each place of care, but the same general requirements are set forth: where safety is an issue, orders are required and consistent assessment is necessary to avoid risks to patients. This paper explores the current usage of physical restraints, how this usage became so common place, the views and emotions of those who use physical restraints, the effects (positive and negative) of physical restraint usage, and alternatives which may exist to physical restraint usage.

Abstract ID: 67
Abstract Title: Chemical Restraints’ Impact on Health Outcomes
Student: Lakara Alston (gardnels@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Danielle Johnson, Lakara Alston
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
In the healthcare setting, a chemical restraint involves the inappropriate administration of a sedative or antipsychotic medication to control or limit undesirable patient behaviors. Chemical restraint utilization has increased as patient loads and conditions have continued to expand and escalate in complexity. These restraints pose a great danger to patients’ health outcomes and safety. Evidence suggests that when treated with chemical restraints, patients may encounter cognitive, physical, and psychological consequences. The purpose of this research study is to highlight the reasons for which chemical restraints are being utilized and to offer alternatives in the form of realistic protocol recommendations and interventions that reduce the necessity of chemical restraints. A systematic literature review was conducted to understand the magnitude of the problems posed by these types of restraints and to validate possible alternatives. When the harmful side effects associated with chemical restraints are avoided due to its decreased use, patient and staff safety are enhanced. Studies confirm that chemical restraints should be used as a last resort and other options, to include therapeutic communication, complementary and alternative medicine approaches, and de-escalation techniques, should be implemented first. Nurses are tasked with promoting patient dignity, respect, and autonomy whenever possible. Refraining from using chemical restraints aids in building rapport and increases the patient’s ability to actively participate in his or her own health care. While every alternative to chemical restraints may not be effective on every patient, it is important for nurses to start with the least restrictive method and justify the use of whichever tool is utilized. Ultimately, when delivering chemical restraints for reasons outside of the medical indication, nurses jeopardize their ability to deliver optimum health outcomes and increase the risk of causing undue harm to the patients and staff.

Abstract ID: 70
Abstract Title: The Portrayal of Nursing in the Media
Student: Sarah Spidel (sspidel@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Sarah Ashtyn Spidel
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
This research paper focuses on the negative portrayal of nursing in the media. Nursing stereotypes and prejudiced media production are shown as having a powerful influence on the public’s opinion of health care. The researcher uses peer-reviewed, scholarly articles collected from several online databases. The research demonstrates negative views of nursing and inaccuracies about the profession reflected in children’s literature, television shows, Hollywood movies, and social media platforms. The impact of the media’s portrayal of nursing not only affects those in need of medical attention, but also those currently practicing, those considering joining the nursing workforce, and the profession in general. Research suggests nurses are the first line of defense in addressing and correcting the negative portrayal through advocacy, seeking higher education, and holding administrative and managerial positions.

Abstract ID: 71
Abstract Title: Physician Assisted Suicide and or Euthanasia; Qualifying Clinical Criteria, Legalization, Terminology and Attitudes/Beliefs of the Public
Student: Regina Mitchell (rkm@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Susan Williams (scwill@uscb.edu)
Author List: Regina Mitchell
Program: Nursing and Health Professions
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
This issue based project focuses on exploring the factual information concerning physician assisted suicide and or euthanasia such as qualifying clinical diagnoses required, demographic areas in which it is legal (possible demographics for future legalization), statistical prevalence of the practice, and public opinion and/or reactions to the procedure. Peer reviewed scholarly articles collected from several internet databases and medical journals are employed in order to clearly define and dispel misconceptions related to the terminology of last resort patient care options such as aggressive symptom management, stopping or not starting life-sustaining therapy, palliative sedation (potentially to unconsciousness), voluntarily stopping eating and drinking, physician-assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia.

Abstract ID: 1
Abstract Title: Impact of Social Media
Student: Jenna Wydronkowski (jennajw@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Randy Lamkin (lamkin@uscb.edu)
Author List: Jenna Wydronkowski
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
This research helped us look further into the issue of the impact that social media has on an individual- whether it was positive or negative. In order to solve this debate on the impact social media has on individuals, I chose to present a 5 minute survey asking nearly 20 questions. These questions entailed the individual answering- gender, age, race, etc.; the media they use most; why they chose to use media; past experiences with social media; mood changes and etc. I noticed that majority of the individuals were positively impacted by social media. Most people believed that the good parts (reconnecting, pictures, etc) outweigh the bad aspects (isolation, comparison, etc) of social media. Some key findings, I noticed was that the younger the individual answering the questions, the more negative experiences they shared. I also found that people have had bad experiences yet a majority of them have over 3 social medias still, even after the bad experience. This research did not change the world by any means but it may have changed the way people view social media and start being less judgmental due to the negative impact comments have on individuals' self-worth.

Abstract ID: 2
Abstract Title: Sociological Factors and Their Effect on Diet Success
Student: Marina Smith (marinas@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Randy Lamkin (lamkin@uscb.edu)
Author List: Marina Smith
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to identify the sociological and environmental factors that contribute to the onset of a diet or weight-loss journey, and study whether or not that journey was successful. The idea originated from the fact that many people who start diets and exercise plans do not successfully complete them. I am passionate about health and fitness and plan to become a registered dietitian. My passion, together with obesity is prevalent in the United States, I was curious to discover why losing weight and starting a new diet was so difficult for so many. The study was conducted by 89 people aged from 18 to over 65, who completed an online survey about their dieting experiences. Results suggested that most people start a diet between the ages of 18-25, and did so to feel confident about themselves, be healthier, and look a certain way. 90% of surveyors cut a food group from their diet (46% cut out carbs and sugar), and 83% returned to their old food habits after the diet period was over. 53% of surveyors had a successful diet, with 53% losing more weight than they expected. Factors leading to a successful diet included having a good mindset and enjoying the diet and exercise program, while the factors leading to an unsuccessful diet included wanting to eat “good” foods (not enjoying their new diet), and wanting to stop dieting due to not seeing results and lack of enjoyment. This research concluded that there needs to be more focus on sustainable dieting, and helping people lose weight while still enjoying aspects of their previous lifestyle. This can ensure that more people are able to lose unhealthy weight, and switch to a healthy lifestyle.

Abstract ID: 3
Abstract Title: The Relationship Between the Media's Portrayal of Gender and Body Images
Student: Rebecca Killian (rkillian@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Randy Lamkin (lamkin@uscb.edu)
Author List: Rebecca A Killian
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to determine the impacts of gender and body images due to the media’s conventional portrayal and representations of males and females. There is a developing issue in our society of the media portraying genders in a stereotypical, unrealistic, and distorted manner that is creating individuals to be unsatisfied with their bodies. The media’s portrayal of body images for both males and females is a critical issue negatively impacting individual’s self-esteem about their own body type. Society specifically the media has influenced and social constructed this idea that males should be muscular and females should be skinny. Three-hundred and fifty-eight individuals completed an online survey that was created to determine an individual’s thoughts on their own body versus their thoughts on the media’s portrayal of bodies based off of gender. This data was used to determine whether an individual felt as if their gender and body type was properly portrayed in the media as a stereotypical unrealistic body type and was broken down to determine if males and females have pressure due to their gender to have a certain body weight, size, type, and shape. Ultimately, the finding was that many individuals were unsatisfied with their bodies as well as with the way that the media portrayed their body. However, it is important to note that this data was collected through a convenience sample making it not generalizable.

Abstract ID: 8
Abstract Title: Effect of the Media on the Preference of Hospitalized Birth in America
Student: Brianna Norwood (bnorwood@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Randy Lamkin (lamkin@uscb.edu)
Author List: Brianna Norwood
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
The purpose of this research project was to identify and explore the social institutions that influence the Mcdonaldization of Birth. The sociologist who developed this terminology, George Ritzer, explained that Mcdonaldization occurs when the characteristics of a society become similar to that of a fast-food restaurant. The key interest of the study was too understand the preference of hospitalized birthing practice in America. Much of the inspiration for this research was due to an interest in understanding how the media can be a powerful tool of persuasion and influence. The experience of birth is represented by the media as being a painful and traumatic experience that requires hospitalization. The media then becomes a powerful influence in the choice to take part in this routinized birthing practice. In order to test the views of hospitalization vs. natural birth a survey was created on SurveyMonkey. The survey was taken by 103 respondents, both male and female, between the ages of 18-75+ years. In the study a “natural” birth was defined as anywhere outside of a hospital setting such as with a midwife or in a birthing center. 64% of respondents felt that having a hospitalized birth was the safest option for their child. 69% of respondents agreed that when they watch reality T.V. women who are giving birth are anxious and in pain. 80% of respondents agreed that women in movies are always in pain during childbirth. Though the results were neutral when asked if women in movies and on T.V. appear to have birthing complications, 81% of respondents felt they should have a hospital birth in case complications were to arise. The conclusion of the study shows the prevalence of hospitalized birth due to the safety of the child and fear of complications along with the negative outlook that is displayed by the media. Further research is required to understand exactly how the media affects the preference of hospitalized birth.

Abstract ID: 10
Abstract Title: 2017 Beaufort County Quality of Life Report
Student: Kayla Smith (kaylabs@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Carey Fitzgerald (cfitzger@uscb.edu)
Author List: Kayla Smith
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Many cities across the United States have begun implementing annual surveys assessing their residents’ quality of life. In measuring specific indicators of social well-being, local governments and organizations have improved their residents’ quality of life. Our study adapted questions from these various quality of life measures that have had been administered across the United States. Questions regarding ease of access to doctors, hospitals, healthy foods, parks, and playgrounds, as well as perceptions regarding safety, crime, traffic, and racial and religious diversity were asked. N = 1,062 completed the survey. The sample consisted of Beaufort County residents of various ages (approximately 45% of the sample were from the Silent Generation, while approximately 20% were baby boomers, approximately 15% were from Generation X, and 20% were Millenials). Ultimately, their perception of Beaufort County was quite positive – over 90% of residents rated Beaufort County as a “good” or “excellent” place to live and to retire. However, less than 50% of surveyed residents rated Beaufort County as a “good” or “excellent” place to work. Some generational differences also emerged. For example, individuals from Generation X, Baby Boomers, and the Silent Generation rated community relations/perceptions regarding controversial issues such as race and law enforcement as much more positive than Millenials. In addition, the older generations (i.e., Generation X, Baby Boomers, and the Silent Generation) rated the priority for future improvements to Beaufort County as significantly less important than Millenials ratings. This indicates that Millenials place greater importance on improving the quality and availability of certain aspects of the county – including affordable housing, the healthcare system, public transportation, public education, the environment, traffic, and the number of available jobs – for the future of Beaufort County residents than older generations do.

Abstract ID: 20
Abstract Title: Black Men and Mass Incarceration in the United States
Student: Tamia Thompson (tamiat@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Najmah Thomas (nthomas2@uscb.edu)
Author List: Tamia Thompson
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Why are the rates of incarcerations higher for African American men than any other race in the United States? Although the data gives reason for people to think so, the reasoning is not because African Americans are more violent, or because they commit more crimes. This mass incarceration of African American men is a result of systemic racism towards African Americans within public policies like the Three Strikes Policy. This is important because men of all races are committing crimes at very similar rates, but the black men are serving time at higher rates than men of any other race. This is important because this country is built on the notion that every man is equal and that the system is fair for all when in all actuality, it is not. There are laws that discriminate against minorities which allows them to be targeted by law enforcement. This leads to black men being in jail more and serving more time than others. This unjust system must come to a stop. New laws need to be implemented to help black men in these situations. There needs to be some changes made to old laws that are causing these problems as well. To make progress on the problem, this paper will provide evidence of laws that play a part of this problem and how they affect black men. This is an issue-based research paper. I will be looking specifically at statistics of the rates at which men of multiple races are incarcerated here in the United States. This research measures the likeliness of black men being incarcerated in comparison with the likeliness of men of other races being incarcerated. Potential answers could be that black men are targeted more and that black men are less educated on the system.

Abstract ID: 22
Abstract Title: Environmental Racial Disparities
Student: Alaysha Salley (aksalley@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Najmah Thomas (nthomas2@uscb.edu)
Author List: Salley, Alaysha
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Descriptive

Abstract:
Why should minorities of color and low-income neighborhoods live within or endure environmental racial disparities? This issue of controlling environmental regulations is important because the unbalancing powers the poor communities and communities of color have caused “produces of waste to minimize unproductive expenses” (Krieg,1998,5). Potential impacts are uncontrollable dumping of waste, leading to contaminated communities, and community segregation. The affect of minorities in the low-income communities having low level of political and economic power creates the problem of commercial hazardous waste landfills and abandoned toxic waste sites located in their communities. Also, the physical environments of their communities can include of housing with lead-based paint, and dangerous pollutants. Their communities should have the power of reducing the cost of externalization. The National Environment Policy Act states in the Environmental Justice Legislation that for “All Americans safe, healthful, productive and esthetically pleasing surrounding” are provided. The main point of this issue is leading factor of exposure to chemicals and waste causing health risks. My research approach is descriptive. For this unjustified inequality in America the approach I would begin with would be figuring out since it is stated in VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Environmental Justice that there is ‘nondiscrimination’, why is illegal dumping mainly in the communities of races other than white. Continuing this discussion, I will address the uncomfortable topic of race. My research will consist of minorities including, Hispanic, Latinos, Native- Americans and African Americans. Addressing their income status leading to their living conditions, the communities, causing the type of physical surroundings, and resulting with their risk of health. Also, which of the minorities is most likely to be in this predicament, and if their community is redlined.

Abstract ID: 28
Abstract Title: Black Panther Vs. Black History
Student: kenneth qualls (kqualls@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Melissa Jacobs (jmelissa@uscb.edu)
Author List: Kenneth Qualls
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
This research analyzes the conflict that arises between King T’challa and his long-lost relative turned arch-nemesis Killmonger in Marvel’s 2018 rendition of their popular comic book series Black Panther. Ultimately, the essay will examine how their conflict directly correlates to the differences of opinions amongst the Civil Rights Movement, and the Black Panther Party during the fight for equality amongst African Americans in the United States which began in the early 1950s. The Identity Theory and Cross-cultural Theory will be used to conduct the analyzation of this phenomena and assist to support scholarly research that relates to this topic.

Abstract ID: 55
Abstract Title: Moving Towards Educational Equity on Predominantly White Campuses
Student: Corta`Nasha Mutcherson (mutcherc@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Najmah Thomas (nthomas2@uscb.edu)
Author List: Corta'Nasha Mutcherson
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
Historically, African-Americans are indirectly denied basic rights. An example of such rights, is the right to an adequate education. While the percentage of Black students that are earning high school diplomas has drastically increased, there is still the ample gap between the percentage of Black students that obtain college degrees compared to White students that obtain college degrees. This proves even worse for Black students that are enrolled in predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Black students at PWIs tend to have lower grade point averages, lower retention rates, and an overall less satisfactory college experience than their White peers (Guiffrida & Dudith, 2010). Black students adapt to the environment of PWIs through identifying with Black faculty and finding refuge in Black organizations offered on their campuses (2010).

Abstract ID: 59
Abstract Title: Education in Impoverished Communities
Student: K`Andra Thompson (kandra@email.uscb.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Najmah Thomas (nthomas2@uscb.edu)
Author List: K'Andra Thompson
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
When it comes to education in poor areas, the students are not getting the best education they need. Many of the students are reading way below their grade level and testing below the standard guidelines. With all of this going on in the school systems, this is leading to students dropping out and committing crimes. This is important because the students feel as if they will never make it where they want to be because of the area they go to school in. They see and hear what people think about them so they think that all they will ever be good for is dropping out and being in the streets. If we continue to ignore the problem of students in poor communities not getting the proper education and causing them to turn to violence, our crime rate, teenage pregnancy, drug usage, and death rates will increase. I believe that to change this outcome, the school system needs to start by making the schools look presentable on the outside as well as the inside. That means grounds upkeep, no graffiti on the walls, no broken windows, up to date computers and textbooks. The students want to be able to come to a safe and clean environment away from what they normally see. I also think that the school systems should add more after school programs. This will give the students more to do outside of school instead of just going back in an environment where they may get in trouble. If the schools create a safer and cleaner school environment, then students are less likely to drop out, death rates and teen pregnancy will decrease.

Abstract ID: 78
Abstract Title: The Cry for HELP in Today’s Educational System
Student: Keshawna Parson (kparson@email.sc.edu)
Faculty Mentor: Najmah Thomas (nthomas2@uscb.edu)
Author List: Keshawna Parson
Program: Social Sciences
Abstract Category: Issue Based

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to identify zoning regulations that have restricted the educational systems of today. Citizens often choose their residence based on the living expenses rather than the quality of local schools available to them or their children. Because of this, many parents are forced into sending their kids to low income schools. As a result, children receive insufficient educational resources as well as low education. John Locke believed that the human mind at birth is a complete, but receptive “blank slate” upon which experience imprints knowledge. If all people are born with blank slates to be educated, then why are some students excelling while others are dropping out? The government tends to give out more finical support to specific demographic more than others. Research shows that only about half of the funding for public schools in the United States comes from the federal and state budget. The other half comes from local property taxes, which varies greatly between rich and poor districts. We see these education laws and zoning laws as “unconstitutional” and funding of schooling being “inequitably distributed.” This researcher aims to educate the audience on the effects of expanding barriers/expanding equal education, socioeconomic segregation, and the limitation of low-income families' schooling choices. Initial findings suggest that there are attainable ways to achieve this goal of equitable education for all.